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44 Cards in this Set

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What is filtration as it relates to the renal system?
Filtration is the removal of waste products from the blood, which mix with fluid and are then removed from the body as urine.
What is tubular reabsorption?
The movement of fluid/substances into the peritubular capillary so that the body can recycle them.
What is tubular secretion?
The movement of substances in the peritubular capillary into the tubule so that the body can eliminate them as urine.
What is the flow from the renal pyramid?
Pyramid -> collecting duct & renal pelvis -> ureter -> bladder
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What is the pathway of the vascular component from the renal artery to the vena cava?
Renal Artery -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus (tuft of capillaries) -> tubular space -> efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries (exchange of fluid) -> renal vein -> vena cava
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What is the pathway in the renal tubule?
Bowman's capsule -> proximal tubule -> descending/ascending Loop of Henle -> distal tubule -> collecting duct -> renal pelvis
What role does the JGA serve?
Which vessel runs along the Loop of Henle?
The vasa recta
What do juxtamedullary nephrons do?
Allow kidneys to conserve as much H20 as possible.
Is glomerular filtration active or passive?
What does the glomerular capillary filter out?
Most proteins
What three forces are involved in glomerular filtration and what are their partial pressures?
Capillary blood pressure (55 mmHg)

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure (30 mmHg)

Bowman's Capsule Hydrostatic Pressure (15 mmHg)
What are the functions of the three forces involved in glomerular filtration?
Capillary blood pressure - promotes filtration

Plasma colloid osmotic pressure - opposes filtration

Bowman's Capsule Hydrostatic Pressure - opposes filtration
What is net filtration pressure (mmHg) and what does it do to the plasma?
10 mmHg

It allows filtrate without protein through and is a nonselective, passive process
What needs to be controlled to set Glomelular Filtration Rate?
capillary blood pressure
What are the two major control mechanisms of GFR?
autoregulation & extrinsic sympathetic control
Why is autoregulation (intrinsic control) the predominant means of controlling GFR?
Because you don't want GFR changing every time arterial or venous BP changes, which is controlled by sympathetic stimulation
What does autoregulation control?
Afferent arteriole diameter
What effect would an increase in MAP have on the autoregulatory mechanism?
It would cause the arteriole to constrict
What is the operating range of autoregulation?
What happens if pressure goes below 80?
GFR declines
What can override autoregulation?
extrinsic control
What are the two mechanisms of autoregulation?
Myogenic mechanism

Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism
What is the main mechanism for autoregulation and what structure does it utilize?
Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism and the JGA.
What do granular cells contain?
vasoactive transmitters/mediators in the granules (vesicles)
What structure monitors rate of flow through the distal tubule?
Macula densa
What happens when flow in the distal tubule increases?
granular cells release mediators which cause vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
What does extrinisic control do when BP drops?
conserves body fluids
What % of plasma entering the glomerulus is filtered?
20 %
T/F: Autoreg responses win over extrinsic.
What are the barriers in tubular reabsorption?
Luminal membrane, interior of epithelial cell, basolateral membrane, interstitial fluid, endothelial lining, & peritubular capillary
When is reabsorption active?
When any step in reabsorption is active
Is Na+ reabsorption active or passive?
What function does Na+ reabsorption play in the proximal tubule?
reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, H20, and urea
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What function does Na+ reabsorption play in the ascending loop of Henle?
conserves water and allows kidneys to concentrate urine
What function does Na+ reabsorption play in the distal tubule and collecting duct?
regulates ECF volume and BP under hormonal control
What hormone does Na+ reabsorption need in the distal tubule and collecting duct?
What is the tubular maximum (TM)?
Maximal rate of reabsorption of a given subtrance
What limits of glucose reabsorption?
# of available transporters
Where are the bulk of adjustments made to urine ?
Proximal tubule
What is the Normal [plasma] of glucose?
What is the Filtered load?
the amount of any substance filtered by the kidneys per minute
What is the renal threshold?
A [plasma] at which you reach Tmax.
When will the kidneys regulate [plasma] of a substance?
when the renal threshold is equal to the desired/normal [plasma] of that substance.