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7 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Mannitol
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Osmotic diuresis due to increasing fluid osmolarity

2) Decrease Intraocular Pressure, Decrease Cerebral Pressure, Cause urination in oliguric Renal Failure Pts, Manage Edema

3)Dehydration
Acetazolamide
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Inhibits Carbonic Anhydrase to cause self limiting diuresis of NaHCO3 in proximal tubule and loss of HCO3 stores

2)Glaucoma, Urinary Alkalinization, Metabloic Alkalosis, Altitude Sickness (compensate for Respiratory Acidosis)

3) Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, neuropathy, Sulfa Allergy, NH3 toxicity
Furosemide
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)Sulfonamide loop diuretic that blocks Na-K-2Cl pump (they are lost in urine) which abolishes the gradient in the Renal Medulla --> prevents urine concentration --> loss of excess water, Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg+, Ca++ (Loops Lose Ca+)

2) Edema (CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema), hypertension, hypercalcemia

3) OH DANG -
Ototoxic
Hypokalemia
Dehydration
Allergy (Sulfa)
Nephritis (interstitial)
Gout (loss of volume concentrates remaining uric acid)
Ethacrynic Acid
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Same as Furosemide but not a Sulfa Drug

2) Diuresis in pts with Sulfa Allergy

3) Acute Gouty attack
Hydrochlorothiazide
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Thiazide diuretic acting in early distal tubule. Inhibits NaCl reabsorption reducing the diluting ability of nephron (can't reabsorb as much water)
Also increased Ca+ reabsorption b/c no competition with NaCl

2)HTN, CHF, Hypercalciuria, Diabetes Insipidus

3) Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis, Hyponatremia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia, Sulfa Allergy
K+ Sparing Diuretics (Spironolactone, Amiloride, Triamterene)
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Spironolactone blocks Aldo receptors to prevent Na+/H20 reabsorption and prevents K+ and H+ excretion.
Triamterene and Amiloride block Na+ channels in Cortical Collecting Tubule

2)Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF

3) Hyperkalemia, endocrine effects (gynecomastia, antiadrogen)
Electrolyte Changes in Diuretics

1)Urine NaCl
2)Urine K
3)Blood pH
4)Urine Ca
1) All increase urine NaCl
2) All increase urine K+ except K+ sparing
3) Acetazolamide, Spironolactone cause acidosis. Loop Diuretics and Thiazides cause Alkalosis (volume contraction)

4) Loop Diuretic increase Urine Ca+, the Thiazide decrease Urine Ca+