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22 Cards in this Set

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Name 4 osmotic diuretics

action
mannitol
glycerine
isosorbide
glycerin

PCT
Osmotic diuretics use (3)

SE (2)
shock
drug overdose
decrease CSF/intraocular pressure
(i.e. narrow or closed angle glaucoma)

Pulmonary edema
dehydration
(dont use with CHF bc it causes an initial plasma volume expansion)
Acetazolamide and Dorzolamide MOA

action and MOA
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

PCT thus causing sodium and bicarbonate excretion
Acetazolamide use (3)
glaucoma
urinary alkalinization
metabolic alkalosis
Acetazolamide SE
hypercholermemic acidosis
neuropathy
ammonia toxicity
sulfa allergy
Thiazide diuretics MOA

action

(hydrochlorothiazide, benzthiazide, indapide, metolazone)
inhibit NaCl reabsorption
(thus increasing excretion of Na, Cl, K, H and decreasing excretion of calcium)

early distal tubule
How do thiazide diuretics cause hypokalemic alkalosis?
sodium load in tubule causes increased Na/K antiport leading to K loss as well as H
Thiazide diuretics use (4)
HTN
CHF
idiopathic hypercalcuria
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
SE of thiazide diuretics (4)

(dont forget mnemonic)
HyperGLUC

glycemia
lipidemia
uricemia
calcemia
Name 4 loop diuretics
ethacrynic acid
furosemide
bumetanide
torsemide
Name 4 loop diuretics
ethacrynic acid
furosemide
bumetanide
torsemide

(most effective diuretics)
loop diuretic MOA

action
block Na/K/2Cl transporter thus preventing hypertonic medulla (i.e. prevents concentration of urine)

thick ascending limb
What is different about ethcyrnic acid compared to the other loop diuretics
(important)
it is not a sulfonamide thus it can be used when a pt has a sulfa allergy
Loop diuretics use (3)
edematous states (CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome)
HTN
hypercalcemia
Loop diuretics SE (6)

(mnemonic)
OH DANG

ototoxicity
hypokalemia
dehydration
sulfa allergy
nephritis (interstitial)
gout
Contraindications of loop diuretics (3)
oral hypoglycemics
Lithium (decreases clearance)
aminoglycosides (additive ototoxicity/nephrotoxicity)
Name 3 potassium sparing diuretics

(mnemonic)
K+ STAys

spironolactone
triamterene
amiloride
K sparing MOA (2 different one

action
spironolactone: compettive aldosterone inhibitor
amiloride and triamterene:
block Na channels

collecting tubule
K sparring agents use (3)

SE (2)
hyperaldosteronism (Conns)
K depletion
CHF

hyperkalemia
gynecomastia (via an antiandrogen effect)
Name an agent used for SIADH

MOA
demeclocycline

ADH antagonist
What is a side effect of both lithium and alcohol
decreased ADH
Agents that cause SIADH (6)

may not be as imp
carbamezepine
thiazides
certain TCA
phenothiazines
chlorpropamide
cisplatin