Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
These 5 things are included in the normal glomerular capillary
mesangial matrix, mesangial cell, podocyte (foot processes), endothelium, GBM
What stx serves to control proteinuria?
Slit diaphragms b/t podocytes
What are the 2 reasons for glomerular injury? Explain
Imumunologic - IC's or immune cells
Non-immunologic - permeability, hyperperfusion, genetic
Name some of the cellular and noncellular mediators of glomerular injury?
PMN's, monocytes, macs, lymphocytes, plts, intrinsic GC's
IC's, complement, cytokines, GF's, superoxides, coagulants, vasoactive substance, and enzymes
This is seen in Acute GN
IC's injuring the membrane and allowing the passage of blood & protein
These four things indicate "glomerular" hematuria?
microscopic (>5rbc/ul urine), macroscopic (>2500rbc/ul urine), dysmorphic rbc's in urine, & rbc casts
What is a normal level of protein?
< 100-150 mg/day
Define microalbuminuria
up to 300mg/day
What is the nephrotic range for proteinuria?
> 3.5 g/day
What is the difference b/t selective and nonselective proteinuria?
Selective proteinuria leaks albumin only. Non-selective leaks all proteins.
These 2 things are the main causes of proteinuria
GC injury
Tubular abnormalities
What are some other things that may cause GC injury?
loss of GBM anionic charges, hemodynamic changes, NSAIDS, diabetes, and Alport's syndrome
Wha is the quartet seen in Nephritic Syndrome?
Hematuria, casts, proteinuria, and HTN
What is the cause of edema seen in NS?
Na+ retention
Name the syndromes that show:
Muddy brown urine
Yellow foamy urine
Nephrotic, Nephritic
This is the most useful too for dx ARF
renal biopsy!
What are contradindications to biopsy?
uncontrolled HTN, hemorrhagic diathesis, ectopic or horseshoe kidney, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney, acute pyelonephritis, aneurysms, uncooperative pt.
What are the complications of biopsy?
gross hematuria, perirenal hematoma,
A-V fistula, infections, death
What are the 3 portions of kidney Bx?
LM, IF, and EM
Describe the LM stain
H&E, PAS, trichome, and methanamine Ag stains, formalin fixation
Describe IF
Fresh frozen sections, FITC labeled Ab's to IgG,M, & A, kappa, lamba light chains, C3, C1q, fibrinogen, & albumin
Describe the EM stain?
glutaraldehyde fixation. Exam of ultra-thin sections contrasted w/ Pb citrate and uranyl citrate
What is the difference b/t intra and extracapillary hypercellularity?
Too many cells are w/in the glomerular capillary tuft.
Too many cells are in the Bowman's capsule epi and the podocytes.
What types of cells are found w/in a crescent?
Glomerular epi cells, inflammatory cells, myofibroblasts/fibroblasts
Define Mesangial Hypercellularity
>3 cells per mesangial area (macs + mesangial cells)
What is the difference b/t a segmental vs a global glomerular sclerosis?
A part of the glomerular capillary lumen is obliterated.
The entire glomerus tuft is obliterated by inc. glomerular ECM
How may IF patterns appear?
Linear (anti-GBM disease), Granular (most IC GN)
If the fluorescence if peripheral what type of disease may be present? Mesangial? Combined?
membranous; IgA nephropathy; think Lupus, nephritis, and MPGN
What disease under EM shows lamellation of the GBM? Fibrils?
Alports's syndrome; amyloid.