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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is prerenal azotemia?
selective rise in BUN during early renal failure
Define segmental. (kidney pathology)
involving part of the glomerular tuft
hematuria, hypertension, oliguria, azotemia = ?
Nephritic Syndrome, "I" = inflammation
LM findings in post-strep glomerulonephritis?
lumpy bumpy and hypercellular w/ neutrophils
EM findings in post-strep glomerulonephritis?
subepithelial humps (from deposition of cationic antigen)
IF findings in post-strep glomerulonephritis?
Goodpasture's is what type of hypersensistivity?
type II (IgG binding directly to BM)
Goodpasture's IF?
Symptoms of Goodpasture's?
hemoptysis, hematuria
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis EM?
subendothelial humps; "tram track"
Course of crescentic glomerulonephritis?
rapid (the Red Crescent is the Islamic Red Cross, an organization that provides relief during emergencies, like crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Course of Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis?
IgA nephropathy IF and EM?
mesangial deposits of IgA (Mes"A"ngium)
Which can be post infectious, IgA nephropathy or Goodpasture's?
IgA nephropathy
Signs of nephrotic syndrome?
massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, generalized edema, hyperlipidemia (think "erotic" = an erection(edema) and ejaculate(massive proteinuria)
LM of membranous glomerulonephritis?
diffuse capillary and basement membrane thickening
IF of membranous glomerulonephritis?
EM of membranous glomerulonephritis?
spike and dome ("if you have a spike in your dome, you must be insane in the "membran"e," -Chirag)
Minimal change disease EM?
foot process effacement
Most common cause of childhood nephrotic syndrome?
minimal change disease
Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis LM?
segmental sclerosis and hyalinosis
Diabetic nephropathy LM?
Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions
SLE (5 patterns of renal involvement) LM?
wire-loop appearance w/ extensive granular BM depsits in membranous glomerulonephritis pattern
What is the most common kidney stone?
Calcium (with either oxalate of phosphate)
What kidney stone is associated with a bacterial infection?
Ammonium magnesium phosphate (struivte) stones are associated with urase positive bugs that make ammonium
What are the two most common stone-forming bacteria?
proteus vulgaris and Staph.
What stones are associated with gout?
Uric acid stones
What else can cause uric acid stones?
Any disease with high cell turnover (remember that uric acid is a by-product of DNA formation), so leukemia and myeloproliferative disease
What stones are associated with cystineuria?
cystine stones
What two stones are radiolucent?
Uric acid and cystine (the two purely metabolic causes)
What are the complications of stones?
Hydronephrosis and pyelonephritis
What causes calcium stones?
Anything that increases calcium in the blood, so high PTH, malignancy (bone breakdown, PTH production), vitamin D overdose.
Renal Cell Carcinoma: Is this a common renal cancer?
Yes, the most common
Renal Cell Carcinoma: Who is prone to this?
males, ages 50-70, smokers, gene deletions on chromosome 3
Renal Cell Carcinoma: This is a cancer of what cell type?
renal tubule cells, histologically they appear clear.
Renal Cell Carcinoma: What are the clinical signs of this cancer?
flank pain, fever, hematuria, palpable mass, secondary polycythemia
Renal Cell Carcinoma: How does it spread?
It invades the renal veins and IVC, to spread hematogenously
Renal Cell Carcinoma: What hormones can it produce?
ACTH, prolactin, Parathyroid-like hormone, gonadotropins and renin.
Wilm's Tumor: Who gets this cancer?
Children 2-4 years
Wilm's Tumor: Is it common?
The most common renal cancer in children
Wilm's Tumor: What is the chromosomal abnormality that leads to this?
deletion of tumor suppressor gene WT1 on chromosome 11
Wilm's Tumor: What tetrad is it associated with?
WAGR - Wilm's, Anirida (lack of an iris), Genitourinary malformation, and Retardation
Wilm's Tumor: How does it present?
huge palpable mass and hemihypertrophy
Wilm's Tumor: What is the histological appearance?
mixed - with stromal, mesenchymal, tubular, glomerular and fibrous elements
Transitional Cell Carcinoma: Where does this cancer occur?
Urinary spaces (tract, calyces, pelvis, bladder)
Transitional Cell Carcinoma: Does it recur?
yes, often
Transitional Cell Carcinoma: How does it spread?
Local invasion
Transitional Cell Carcinoma: What can predispose you to it?
Pee SAC toxins - Phenacetin, Smoking, Aniline dye (benezenes), and Cyclophsophimide.
Transitional Cell Carcinoma: How does it present?