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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what makes up the (bony parts) median plane of the posterior abdominal wall?
vertebral bodies, intervertebral disks, and transverse processes of the 5 lumbar vertebrae
what makes up the (bony parts) lateral plane of the posterior abdominal wall?
twelfth pair of ribs above to the pelvic brim below
what bony part divides the posterior abdominal wall into upper and lower parts?
iliac crests
what is the pelvis major?
the region of the abdomen btw the iliac crest and pelvic brim
psoas major muscle
T12 - L5. runs downward and laterally to enter thigh inferior to inguinal ligament
inserts on lesser trochanter
flexes thigh; when thigh fixed flexes trunk on thigh
L2-L4 is innervation
psoas minor muscle what is it mistaken for
may be mistaken for genitofemoral that lies on the surface of psoas major
psoas minor where is it located?
(tagged in past)
right on top of the psoas major
50% of the time either absent or insignificant
what is the illiopsoas muscle
the combination of the psoas major, minor, and iliacus
where is the iliacus muscle located?
originates on the iliac fossa
joins the lateral side of the psoas tendon to insert on the lesser trochanter of femur
what is the action of the iliacus
with the psoas it is the most powerful flexor of the thigh
what is the action of the iliacus
flexes thigh on the trunk, but if thigh is fixed, it flexes the trunk to the thigh as in sitting up from lying position
what innervates the iliacus muscle
the femoral nerve (L2-L4)
what is contribution to the femoral nerve?
What is the lateral oblique border of the quadratus lumborum a landmark of?
kidney when exposing the kidney from behind
where does the quadratus lumborum insert
on the 12th rib and transverse processes of the upper 4 lumbar vertebrae
what is the action of the quadratus lumborum?
fixes the 12th rib during inspiration, depresses the 12th rib during forced expiration, and laterally flexes the vertebral column on the same side
what flexes laterally the vertebral column on the same side?
quadratus lumborum
what is the nerve supply of the quadratus lumborum
lumbar plexus (anterior branches of T12, L1-4)
what nerves contribute to the lumbar plexus
ant branches of T12 and L1-4
the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum is covered by lumbar fascia, where the fascia is thickened on the muscle what is it called?
the lateral arcuate line above and the iliolumbar ligament below
what does the transversus abdominis muscle do
compresses the abdominal contents
what is the nerve supply of the transversus abdominis
7-12 thoracic nerves, iliohypogastic L1
ilioinguinal L1
where does the transversus abdominis becomes aponeurotic
on the lateral border of the quadratus lumborum
what does the transversus abdominis become a sheath of
deep back muscles
what lies within the abdominal fascial lining
blood and lymph vessels
where do the principal nerves lie with respect to the fascial lining
outside the fascia
what is the femoral sheath?
it is a downward prolongation of the fascial lining around the femoral vessels and lymphatics, for about 4 cm into the thigh, inferior to the inguinal ligament
does the femoral nerve lie in the femoral sheath
no, it is a principal nerve therefore it lies outside the fascial lining, it has no sheath!
where does the abdominal aorta enter
T12 and L1
remember CEA:
caval 8
esophagus 10
aorta 12
where does the abdominal aorta bifurcate
where does the celiac trunk arise
level of IV disc T12 and L1 just distal to aortic hiatus
what prevents the ascent of the left renal vein
superior mesenteric artery
what arrests the ascent of the horseshoe-shaped kidney
inferior mesenteric artery
what are the branches of the abdominal aorta
renal, suprarenal and gonadal arteries
what does the renal arteries arise from
abdominal aorta
Where does the suprarenal arteries arise from
abdominal aorta
where does the testicular or ovarian arteries arise from
abdominal aorta
what supplies the roof and walls of the abdomen
inferior phrenic arteries
lumbar arteries
median sacral artery
what is the median sacral artery a continuation of
abdominal aorta
where does the abdominal aorta terminate?
anterior to L4 vertebra
what happens at L4?
bifurcation of abdominal aorta
into right and left common iliac arteries
what does the common iliac artery bifurcate to?
internal and external arteries
what does the external iliac artery supply
the thigh
what does the external iliac become and where does the name change occur
femoral artery
runs on the iliacus muscle inferior to the inguinal ligament
what are the 2 branches of the external iliac artery before passing behind the inguinal ligament
inferior epigastric
deep circumflex iliac a
what does the deep circumflex iliac artery anastomoses with what
iliolumbar from internal iliac
what is the largest vein in body
inferior vena cava
where does inferior vena cava begin
anterior to L5 just below the aortic bifurcation
and behind the right common iliac artery
where does the aorta bifurcate
where does the IVC enter the diaphragm
what veins drain into the IVC
right suprarenal v
right renal v
right testicular or ovarian v
what does the ascending lumbar vein become
the azygos or hemiazygos vein
the visceral (preaortic) nodes lie at where
origin of the celiac trunk SMA and IMA
what does the preaortic (visceral) nodes drain
GI tract from lower 3rd of esophagus to upper half of anal canal, spleen, pancreas, gall bladder, and liver
lumbar nodes (lateral aortic nodes) drain what organs
the kidneys, adrenals, testes, ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterine fundus
what structure does the lumbar nodes drain into
the cisterna chyli
where is the cisterna chyli
anterior to the L1 and L2 to the right of the aorta
what forms the lumbar plexus
ventral rami of L1,L2,L3,and upper half of L4 and the first rami is joined by a branch of T12
what is the first branch of lumbar plexus
L1 - iliohypogastric
what does the iliohypogastric supply
internal oblique
transversus abdominis and skin over iliac crest, upper inguinal and hypogastric regions
what does ilioinguinal nerve supply
inferiormost internal oblique and transversus abdominis
and skin of scrotum, labium majus, mons pubid, and medial aspect of thigh
what contributes to the ilioinguinal nerve
what contributes to the genitofemoral
L1 and L2
what does the femoral branch of the genitofemoral do
pierces the fascia lata and supplies the skin of the femoral triangle
what does the genital branch of the genitofemoral do
supplies the cremaster muscle and traverses the inguinal canal to end in the skin of the scrotum and the cremasteric reflex
what does the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve supply
L2 and L3
skin on anterior and lateral thigh to knee
what does the femoral nerve supply
L2, L3, and L4
iliacus, pectineus, and anterior thigh muscles and skin on anterior thigh and medial leg
what does the obturator nerve supply
L2, L3 and L4
obturator externus, pectineus and medial thigh m, and skin on the medial thigh
where does the sympathetic trunk enter the thorax
inferior to the medial arcuate ligament follows the medial border of psoas muscle
what is another name for the celiac plexus
solar plexus
where is the celiac plexus lie
encircles the celiac trunk of aorta and radiates out and lies behind the peritoneum, btw the celiac trunk and the adrenal gland on the crus of the diaphragm
what structures conceal the celiac trunk
the ivc the right
and pancreas and splenic artery the left
what joins the celiac plexus
greater splanchnic at the upper part and the lesser splanchnic at its lower part.
what is the renal plexus a derivative of
celiac plexus
what joins the renal plexus
the least splanchnic nerve (T12)
and first lumbar splanchnic nerves
what arteries does the parasympathetic nerves follow
celiac a
superior mesenteric a
and renal a
fibers of the parasympathetic nerves via a large branch of the posterior vagal trunk pass thru what stucture
celiac plexus
where are the suprarenal glands located?
superomedial to the kidney
what are the suprarenal glands surrounded by
perirenal fat
the suprarenal glands receive blood from the
superior, middle, and inferior suprarenal artery
what is the superior suprarenal artery a branch of
inferior phrenic
what is the middle suprarenal artery a branch of
directly off the abdominal aorta
what is the inferior suprarenal artery a branch of
renal artery
the left suprarenal gland drains blood into the ____
left renal vein
the right suprarenal glands drain into the _____