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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The pressure of glomerular capillaries is relatively ___ as compared to systemic capillaries
high
Peritubular capillary pressure is ___ compared to systemic capillaries
low
Afferent constriction causes
decrease RBF, decreased GFR
Afferent dilation causes
increase RBF, increased GFR
Efferent constriction
decreased RBF, increased GFR
efferent dilation
increased rbf, decreased GFR
GFR maintained constant through these arterial pressures
90 to 180
Autoregulation obtained by
myogenic response of arteriolar smooth muscle and tubuloglomerular feedback
When macular densa senses an increase in fluid and NACL delivered to distal nephoron produces
afferen arteriole vasoconstriction that causses a decrease in GFR
Adenosine causes this
vasoconstriction by interacting with afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cell receptor
What increases sensitivity of the TGF
volume contraction and AII
what decreases sensitivty of TGF
volume expansion, NO and prostaglandins
Decreases in blood volume or blood pressure does this
sympathetic nerve activation ->released NE interacts with a-1 receptors in afferent arterioles causing contriction, a reduction in RBF and GFR, greater retention fo water and salt --> greater volume

sympathetic activation of B1 receptors increases release of renin
endothelin
vasoconstrictor of afferent and effernet arterioles produced by endothelial and mesangial cells
NO produced by
endothelial and macular densa cells
These factors stimulte the release of NO
ATP, bradykinin, Histamin, expansion of ECF volume
Vasodilators
NO, ATP, bradykinin, histamin, dopamin, ANP
early PT sodium reabsorption
NA contransport with organic solutes (glucose, aa, lactate, phosphate, etc), NHE3 transporter (Na, H antitransport), Na, K ATPase
late PT sodium reabsoprtion
coupling of the Na-H exhanger with Cl-OH exhanger
TAL sodium reabsorption
NKCC2, Na:2Cl:K
early distal tubule Na reabsorption
NA contransported with CL (NCC) sensitive to thiazides
Late distal and collecting duct
NA entry through ENaC channel sensitive to amiloride
SGLT2 is --afinity, ___ capacity
low afinity, high capacity in the early proximal tubule
SGLT1
is high affinity, low capcity, stoichemetry of 2Na, 1 gluose in late proximal tubule
Glucose exists the basolateral membrane through facilitated diffusion of these two carriers
GLUT1-late segment and GLUT2-early segment
The driving force for water reabsorption in descending limb of Henle
high osmolality of the medullary interstitium
Permeability of late dt and collecting duct regulated by
ADH
obligatory water loss is
0.4L/day
The driving force for the reaborption of water at distal nephron is the difference
between teh osmolarity between the tubular and interstital fluids
AQP1 vs AQP2
AQP1 is present at luminal membranes of proximal and descending limb tubular cells. ADH induces the insertion of AQP2 into the luminal membrane of hte late distal and collecting duct cells
AQP3 and AQP4
present on the basolateral membrane of the water permeable segments
G-T balance maintained by
Starling forces at the pertitubular capillaries (increased GFR, constant RBF leads to increased oncotic pressure in peritubular capallaries leading to increased reabsopriton of water and NA.

With increase in GFR also get increased filtered load of glucose, aa, and other oraganic solutes contransporte with Na in pt
AQP3 and AQP4
present on the basolateral membrane of the water permeable segments
G-T balance maintained by
Starling forces at the pertitubular capillaries (increased GFR, constant RBF leads to increased oncotic pressure in peritubular capallaries leading to increased reabsopriton of water and NA.

With increase in GFR also get increased filtered load of glucose, aa, and other oraganic solutes contransporte with Na in pt