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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the six functions of the kidney nephron?
Fluid & Electrolytes
Acid/Base Balance
Systemic Blood Pressure
Red Blood Cell Production
Activation of Vitamin D
Excrete Cellular Waste
Define "diuretic".
A drug that increases urinary output.
Name 5 conditions commonly treated with diuretics.
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Pulmonary Edema
Liver Failure
Renal Failure
Name the 5 types of diuretics.
Loop
Thiazide
Carbonic Anhydrase
Osmotic Diuretics
Potassium-Sparing
Lt. Cop
Name 3 osmotic diuretics.
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Urea (Ureaphil)
Glycerine
M
U
G
Explain the MOA for osmotic diuretics.
Filteres through glomerulus and is not reabsorbed creating a higher osmolar concentration in the tubules. This decreases re-absorption of water
^osmotic > decreased water reabsorption
What are the 3 uses for osmotic diuretics?
Prevention of acute renal shutdown.
Decrease intra-cranial pressure.
Dectrease intraocular pressure.
shutdown of
ICP
intraocular
What are the Contraindications/percautions for osmotic diuretics?
Intra-cranial bleeding.
Anuric (0 output) renal failure.
Dehydration
B
A
D
or to OD is BAD
Name 2 carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretics.
Acetazolamide (Diamox)
Methazolamide (Neptazane)
-xolamide ending
Describe the mechanism of action for carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretics.
Inhibits H2CO3>H2O+CO2 (hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of carbonic acid) and
Inhibits H+ secreation in the proximal tubule.
Inhibits 2 things.
What are the 4 uses of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretics.
Coronary heart failure
Open angle glaucoma
Mountain sickness (altitude)
Epileptic seizures
C
O
M
E
Name the contraindications for carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretics.
Pulmonary disorders
Electrolyte imbalence
Alergy to Sulfonamide
P
E
AS
or CA PEA "see a pea"
List the adverse reactions to carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretics.
Hypokalemia
Enhanced Absorption of other medications
Metabolic acidosis
H
EA
D
Name 3 loop diuretics.
Furosemide (Lasix)
Torsemide (Demedex)
Bumetanide (Bumex)
They have -ide endings.
F
T
B
Want is the mechanism of action (4 steps) for loop diuretics.
High Ceiling
1. Secreted in the desencing Loop of Henle (don't pass glomerulus)
2. Bind, block & inhibit Na+, Cl-, and K+.
3. Electrolytes & H2O are not reabsorbed.
4. Urinary output is significantly increased.
inhibit ion syporters
List the 4 uses for loop diuretics.
Heart failure
Hypertension
Hepatic Cirrhosis
Chronic Renal Failure
Triple "H" and C.
List the 2 contraindications for loop diuretics.
Anuria
Electrolyte abnormalitiy
List the 4 adverse effects for loop diuretics.
Dehydration
Electrolyte imbalance
Photosensitivity
Ototoxisity
DEP-O
Name 3 thiazide diuretics.
Hydochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
Metolazone (Zaroxolyn)
Indapamide (Lozol)
HIM
Describe the mechanism of action for thiazide diuretics.
The drug is secreted into the distal tubules where it blocks Na+ & Cl- symporters causing them not to be reabsorbed. K+ & H2O are secreated leading to an increase in urinary output.
Na+ & Cl- symporters are blocked.
List the 4 uses for thiazide diuretics.
Moderate heart disease
Hypertention
Renal Disease
Fluid retention secondary to steroid hormone replacement.
M
H
R
F
List the 2 containcications for thiazide diuretics.
Anuria
Hypokalemia
List the 2 advers effects for thiazide diuretics.
Hyperglycemia
Hyperuricemia leading to gout.
2 Hyper-
Name the 2 potassium-sparing diuretics.
Spirolactone (Aldactone)
Triamterene (Dyrenium)
Describe the 2 mechanisms of action for potassium-sparing diuretics.
Potassium-sparing diuretics block re-absorption of Na+ in the distal convoluted tubule & collecting duct so an exchange of Na+ for K+ does not occur.
Blocks aldosterone receptor sites so Na+ is not reabsorbed and K+ is not exchanged.
Blocks sodium reabsorbtion so potassium stays in the body -sparing potassium.
Blocks aldosterone recepor sites.
List the 3 uses for potassium-sparing diuretics.
Heart failure/hypertension
Hyperaldosteronism treatment
Liver disease
H
H
L
List the 2 contraindications for potassium-sparing diuretics.
Anuria
Acute renal insufficientcy
double A
What is the adverse reation for potassium-sparing diuretics.
Hyperkalemia
What stays in the body that might be raised?
What must you monitor for all diuretics?
I & O
Na+ Cl- K+ Ca+ levels
Daily weight
BP prior to administration.
ions
water balence
What must you ASSESS for all diuretics?
Dependent areas for edema.
Dehydration S&S
Hypotention S&S after
DAFEDHA
Educate the patient on what 3 topics for all diuretics?
Importance of complience.
Common side effects.
Dietary changes.
List the drugs classess that incrase renal perfusion.
ACE inhibitors, Beta Blockers, and Renal valso-dilators
BAR