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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What substance is used to measure the plasma volume?
Radiolabeled albumin
What substance is used to measure the Extracellular volume?
Inulin
% of body mass that is water?
60%
% of body mass that is ECF?
20%
1/3 of total body water
% of body mass that is ICF?
40%
2/3 of total body water
% of body mass that is Plasma volume?
5%
1/4 of ECF which is 1/3 of TBW
% of body mass that is Interstitial fluid
15%
3/4 of ECF which is 1/3 of TBW
What substance is used to measure Effective renal plasma flow?
P-amminohippuric acid
Is filtered and secreted; all PAH that enters kidney is excreted
Above what plasma glucose concentration does glucosuria begin to form?
200mg/dL
What does the kidney do to vitamin D?
Converts 25-OH vitamin D to 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D;
Enzyme is 1-alpha-hydroxylase which is activated by PTH
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Methanol
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Uremia
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Paraldehyde
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Phenformin
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Iron tablets
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
INH
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Lactic acidosis
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Ethylene glycol
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Salicylates
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Diarrhea
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Glue sniffing
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Renal tubular acidosis
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
?Anion gap in acidosis from:
Hyperchloremia
Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
What is fused in a horseshoe kidney?
The inferior poles of both kidneys are fused together
Horseshoe kidneys get trapped under what?
Inferior mesenteric artery
Kidneys end up low in the abdomen because they can't continue migrating superiorly from the pelvis
Type of cast?
Glomerular inflammation
RBC cast
Type of cast?
Ischemia
RBC cast
Type of cast?
Malignant hypertension
RBC cast
Type of cast?
Tubulointerstitial disease
WBC cast
Type of cast?
Acute pyelonephritis
WBC cast
Type of cast?
Glomerular disorders
WBC cast
Type of cast?
Acute tubular necrosis
Granular cast
Type of cast?
Advanced renal disease
Waxy cast
What causes hematuria w/o RBC casts?
Bladder cancer
What causes WBC's in urine w/o WBC casts
Acute cystitis
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Acute poststreptococcal GN
nephrItic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Rapidly progresive GN
nephrItic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Goodpasture's syndrome
nephrItic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Membranoproliferative GN
nephrItic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
IgA nephropathy
nephrItic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Alport's syndrome
nephrItic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Membranous GN
nephrOtic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Minimal change disease
nephrOtic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis
nephrOtic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Diabetic nephropathy
nephrOtic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Lupus nephropathy
nephrOtic syndrome
Nephritic or Nephrotic:
Renal amyloidosis
nephrOtic syndrome
Crescent formation in glomerulus
Rapidly progressive GN
Anti-GBM antibodies
Goodpasture's syndrome
"Tram-track" appearance in glomerulus
Membranoproliferative GN
Mesangial deposition of antibodies
IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease)
"Spike and dome" appearance on EM
Membranous GN
MCC of nephrotic syndrome in adults?
Membranous GN
MCC of nephrotic syndrome in children
Minimal Change disease
Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesions
Diabetic nephropathy
Apple green birefringence on immunoflorescence
Renal amyloidosis
Most common kidney stone
Calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate stones
2nd most common kidney stone
Ammonium magnesium phosphate stone (struvite)
Staghorn calculi
Ammonium magnesium phosphate kidney stones
Caused by urease (+) microbes
Radiolucent kidney stone
Uric acid stone
Kidney stone caused by Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus or Klebsiella
Ammonium magnesium phosphate kidney stone (struvite)
Form staghorn calculi
Most common renal malignancy
Renal cell carcinoma
Most common renal malignancy of early childhood
Wilm's tumor
Usually occurs between ages 2 and 4
Paraneoplatic syndromes a/w Renal cell carcinoma
EPO, ACTH, PTHrP, and prolactin
Genetics of von Hippel-Lindau
Gene deletion in chromosome 3
Most common tumor of urinary tract system
Transitional cell carcinoma
aka Urothelial Carcinoma
MCC of acute renal failure
Acute tubular necrosis
Consequences of:
Hyponatremia
Disorientation, stupor, coma
Consequences of:
Hypernatremia
Irritability, delirium, coma
Consequences of:
Hypokalemia
U waves on EKG, flattened T waves, arrhythmias, paralysis
Consequences of:
Hyperkalemia
Peaked T waves, arrhythmias
Consequences of:
Hypocalcemia
Tetany, neuromuscular irritability
Consequences of:
Hypercalcemia
Delirium, renal stones, abdominal pain
Consequences of:
Hypomagnesemia
Neuromuscular irritability, arrhythmias
Consequences of:
Hypermagnesemia
Delirium, hyporeflexia, cardiopulmonary arrest
Consequences of:
Hypophosphatemia
Low-mineral ion product causes bone loss
Consequences of:
Hyperphosphatemia
High-mineral ion product causes metastatic calcification, renal stones
Type of diuretic:
Mannitol
Osmotic diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Acetazolamide
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Type of diuretic:
Furosemide
Loop diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Ethacrynic Acid
non-sulfonamide Loop diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Hydrochlorothiazide
Thiazide diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Bumetamide
Loop diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Torsemide
Loop diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Chlorothiazide
Thiazide diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Metolazone
Thiazide diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Chlorothalidone
Thiazide diuretic
Type of diuretic:
Spironolactone
Potassium sparing diuretic
Competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist
Type of diuretic:
Eplereone
Potassium sparing diuretic
Competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist
Type of diuretic:
Triamterene
Potassium sparing diuretic
Blocks Na channel in principal cells
Type of diuretic:
Amiloride
Potassium sparing diuretic
Blocks Na channel in principal cells
Type of diuretic:
Captopril
ACE inhibitor
Type of diuretic:
Enalapril
ACE inhibitor
Type of diuretic:
Lisinopril
ACE inhibitor
Type of diuretic:
Losartan
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist