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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
filtration of plasma per unit of time
glomerular filteration rate
directly related to the perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries.
When systemic arterial pressure decreases
this stimulates renal arteriolar vasoconstriction and decreases both RBF and GFR
decreases the GFR and diminishes excretion of sodium and water, promoting an increase in blood volume and thus an increase in systemic pressure.
The decreased RBF
Exercise, body position, and hypoxia also influence
turned on with a loss; plasma decreases; detected by JGA, this releases renin.
The renin-angiotensin system
A major hormonal regulator of RBF
renin-angiotensin system,
can increase systemic arterial pressure and change RBF.
renin-angiotensin system
decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles, which reduces stretch of the juxtaglomerular cells; decreased sodium chloride concentration in the distal convoluted tubule; and sympathetic nerve stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors on the juxtaglomerular cells.
mechanisms that stimulate the release of renin
the movement of fluids and solutes from the tubular lumen to the peritubular capillary plasma.
Tubular reabsorption
the transfer of substances from the plasma of the peritubular capillary to the tubular lumen.
Tubular secretion
amount filtered per day.
Filtration rate
The norm is 180 L.
Filtration rate
looks at amount cleared in 24 hours. Follow long-term.
Creatinine clearance test/24 hour urine
Normal creatinine
reflects a long-term decline on GFR over weeks or months.
Plasma creatinine concentration
reflects glomerular filtration and urine concentrating capacity.
BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Normal BUN
Normal urine pH
Normal specific gravity
dilation of the ureter
dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces
Unilateral obstruction reduces RBF and GFR and is reflected by
an increased plasma creatinine level
Alkaline (basic) urine =
calcium stone,
acidic urine =
uremic stone
High purine diet assoc. with
uric acid stones
Calcium stones are treated with
diuretics and allopurinol
a procedure for eliminating a calculus in the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder. A high frequency sound wave used to break up stone.
a functional urinary tract obstruction caused by an interruption of the nerve supply to the bladder caused by motor neuron lesion
Neurogenic bladder
Essentially bladder paralysis correlated with area of injury.
Neurogenic bladder
burning sensation, fever, chills, shivering. The CMs are the result of the infection due to urine retention or catheter.
Neurogenic bladder
the most common renal neoplasm. 60% survival.
Renal cell carcinoma
Associated with tobacco use, obesity, and prolonged analgesic (pain meds) use
Renal cell carcinoma
hematuria, flank pain.
Renal cell carcinoma
surgical removal of affected kidney, chemo, radiation.
Renal cell carcinoma
surgical removal of kidney
radical nephrectomy
Risk greatest in men who smoke or work in the chemical, rubber, or textile industries.
Bladder tumors
Recurring cancer of every three to five years.
Bladder tumors
Assoc. with mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene p53
Bladder tumors
Evaluation: cytoscopy (light)
Bladder tumors
an inflammation of the bladder causing urinary frequency, dysuria, urgency, and/or lower abdominal, lower back, or suprapubic pain.
The most common pathogens found in UTI
E. coli, staphylococcus arueus, pseudomonas.
Diagnosis – 10,000 bacteria/ml of freshly voided urine
no or little bacteria present.
"Nonbacterial” cystitis
Can develop urethral syndrome
"Nonbacterial” cystitis
usually occurs in young sexually active women. Inflammation of microscopic glands within urinary structure itself.
urethral syndrome
Can develop interstitial cystitis
"Nonbacterial” cystitis
persistent and chronic form of nonbacterial cystitis. Constant inflammation of bladder wall.
interstitial cystitis
defined as an acute infection involving the renal pelvis and interstitium. Usually see antibody coated bacteria.
Acute pyelonephritis
Causative organism is usually E. coli
Acute pyelonephritis
Causes UTO or reflux. Frequency, urgency, N/V, fever. Urine culture done to determine what causative organism is. Antibiotics and follow up urine culture.
Acute pyelonephritis
an infection of one or both upper urinary tracts (ureters, renal pelvis, and renal parenchyma)
a persistent or recurrent infection of the kidney with inflammation and scarring. One or both kidneys may be involved. Kidney appears smaller than normal. Relieve obstruction of possible.
Chronic pyelonephritis
Usually results in renal failure.
Chronic pyelonephritis
decrease GFR, edema is common hypertension, elevated BUN
Glomerular Disorders
massive proteinuria, lipiduria, and microscopic or no hematuria.
Nephrotic sediment
hematuria with red blood cell casts, white blood cell casts, and varying degrees of mild proteinuria, which is usually not severe.
Nephritic sediment
Reduced GFR is evidenced by
increased creatinine levels.
Cause: alteration of IgG binding.
Autoimmune disorder. Deposition of antigen-antibody complexes. Formation of antibodies specifically against glomerulus basement membrane.
CM: brown urine, fluid retention, hematuria, and proteinuria, HTN.