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35 Cards in this Set

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who ended the War of the Roses
Henry VII
What did the War of the Roses allow?
It allowed the rebirth of the human spirit, begun in Italy to England Renaissance is based on a resturn to classical influences - culture, knowledge - begun in ancient Greece and Rome
Who set up the first printing press? When?
William Caxton 1476
Who invented the printing press?
Gutenberg
What did the printing press do (2 things)?
1. aids in the dissimenation of knowledge
2. literacy increases (by 1530, 60 percent of England was literate)
When did Columbus sail? For who?
1492
Spain
Who did John Cabot sail for and what did he discover? When?
-England
-discovers mainland North America
-1497
Who did Vasco da Gama sail for? What did he do? When?
-sails for Portugal
-goes to the Orient (India) around Cape of Good Hope (Southern Africa)
What did Walter Raleigh do? When?
-planted British flag in America
-1584
What are the events in England spreading the Renaissance?
1. Printing Press
2. Age of Discovery (science)
3. Economic Changes
4. Changes in Philosophy
5. Changes in Religion
What are the 6 economic changes?
a. Commercial Treaties with other countries
b. Manufacture of Cloth Begins
c. Cities (London, especially)draw people as centers of trade
d. Feudalism dies
e. Rise of the Middle Class (merchant class)
f. Currencies are set up (as opposed to bartering)
What is an effect of the rise of the middle class?
Business in the modern sense is established
What is the medieval view?
the world is simply a preparation for the next
What is the Renaissance view?
Christian Humanism (not secular humanism) based on Greek and Roman writings, especially Cicero (Roman Philosopher)
What are the Three Aims of Humanism?
a. make men realize their human capabalities as individuals

b. free people from the view that this life is simply a preparation for the next

c. an active life in this world has a value in itself
What do the 3 aims of humanism point to?
There is no God therfore you help yourself
What is the Reformation? Who started it? When and Where?
-reform of the Catholic Church
-Martin Luther
-1517
-Wittenberg, Germany
What did Martin Luther Create?
95 theses for reforming the Catholic Church
What is an effect of the Reformation?
The Church is weakened across England
Who divorces Catherine of Aragon and Why? Who does he marry after her?
-Henry VIII because he wants an heir but only gets one child, Mary.
-Anne Boleyn
Who disapproves of this Divorce? What does he do as a result and when?
-Catholic Church
-Henry VIII starts the Church of England (no longer Catholic)
Who is at power in the Height of Renaissance in England? What is on the rise?
-Queen Elizabeth I
-Nationalism
When does Queen Elizabeth rule? At what age does she take the throne?
-1558-1603
-at age 25
What are Queen Elizabeth's characterisitics?
vain, difficult, headstrong, unmarried, politically shrewd
What is Elizabeth's stance on religion?
She walks the fine line between Catholicism and Protestantims by focusing on the new national spirit
How does Elizabeth anger the spanish? When?
She allows Sir Francis Drake to plunder Spanish wealth on his voyages
- 1577-1580
What is the name of Drake's boat? How much does it steal? What else occurs on the ship?
- Golden Hind
- 1 Million Pounds
- Elizabeth knights him
Who from Spain, declared war on England? What did he use? When?
- King Philip II
- Spanish Armada
- 1588
Why did the British win the war?
1. they had smaller, faster ships
2. had home field advantage so they could navigate thru the storms at sea
What are the 3 main types of Renaissance Literature?
In order of importance:
1. The drama
2. the sonnet
3. the madrigral
What is a sonnet and what are the two types?
- a 14 line poem written within strict rules

1. Petrarchan
2. Shakespearian
Where is the petrarchan sonnet from? How many and what type of lines? What is its rhyme scheme? What are its numbers?
- 14 iambic pentameter lines
- abba abba cde cde
" "
octave sestet
Where is the Shakespearian sonnet from? How many and what type of lines? What is its rhyme scheme? What are its numbers?
- 14 iambic pentameter
- abab cdcd efef gg
" "
3 quatrains couplet
What is a madrigal?
a short lyrical poem set to acapella music
What is the significance of the drama?
the most important form literary form of the Renaissance (Shakespeare's plays)