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48 Cards in this Set

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What 5 things made it helpful in producing the state of Renaissance?
1. More stable government
2. More stable banking
3. More of a middle class - opportunity for people to get wealthy.
4. Trade
5. Look at people as human beings.
Timeline for Renaissance?
Timeline for Italian?
Timeline for French?
Timeline for Spanish?
timeline for English?
Renaissance 1400-1700
Italian 1400-1580
French 1490-1650
Spanish 1400-1600
English 1485-1689
Timeline for Baroque/Rococo?
Timeline for Italian/Baroque?
Timeline for French/Barouque?
Timeline for French Rococo?
Timeline for English Baroque/Rococo?
Baroque/Rococo - 1580 - 1760
Italian/Baroque - 1580-1750
French Baroque 1643-1715
French Rococo - 1715-1774
English Boroque - 1660 - 1760

Some are 200 years.
Renaissance Phases
I - symmetrical - hesitant-experiemental
*II - successful - balanced - achievement
**III - Decadence - Great freedom - elaboration
* Relyed on classics - Roman/Greek revival

**Michaelangelo
Attributes in the Renaissance (rebirth):
- symmetry dominant
- new love for classics
- details of moldings
- neutral color
- patterns painted to suggest wallpaper
- frescoes
- beamed ceilings
- coffered ceilings
- floors, brick, tile, marble with geometric and complex patterns and shapes - tile floors
- the monks saved a lot of info. from Rome, they helped retrieve some of it
- Plans - symmetry with a hint of cross
Stozzi Palace
architecture - didn't take it literally; nice piece of symmetry - not what Romans did - something new - new method
The palace (palazzo) in towns and the villa in the country developed as residences offering considerable comfort and beauty. The typical palazzo in a town came to be 3 or 4 (or more) stories high. With the following spaces typical:
1. Many houses had a well below.
2. ground floor devoted to entrance spaces, shop, services, stables, and storage.
3. Piano Nobile - provided the large and richly decorated salons for formal life. Often, bedrooms were on this level, arranged in suites for members of the owner family. Study, ofice, grand salon.
4. Servants were in the top floor - in the back were stairs that they used.
Andrea Palladio
is the most copied architect in history
- known for palladian motif
- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello based on his design
- Wrote 'The Four books of Architecture published in 1570. Text on classical design including translations from
Vitruvious and illustrative woodcut plates of ancient examples.
Andrea Palladio (1505-80)
One of the most influential figures of Renaissance architecture, placed his personal stamp on Renaissance classicism but can hardly be viewed as a mannerist.

Known for "Palladian motif" an arched opening with a rectangular opening on either side.

Wrote I Quattro Libri dell'Architecttura (The Four Books of Architecture) published in 1570.
Palladio non-secular architecture
'harmonic' proportions
1. 1549 - provided bracing for a late medieval town hall in Vicenza
2. designer of a number of town houses in Vicenza and of villas in surrounding countryside. Villa Barbaro at Maser (Greek cross plan - central space with smaller rooms fitted into each corner. Interiors simple but Paola Veronese did fresco paintings, simulating architectural detail.
3. Villa Capra (or Rotonda) just outside Vicenza, square structure with a domed central rotunda. It is one of the best known of Renaissance buildings. Symmetrical around two main axes is a study in modular layout.
4. Villa Foscari (Malcontenta, begun 1558); 'harmonic' proportions with simple ratios such as 2:3 or 3:5
Palladio's great churches in _______,
_______ and _____ each apply classical vocabulary, with a barrel-vaulted nave with high windows and a windowed dome at the crossing. Arches at the sides of the nave open into connected chapels at ______________, and into aisles at _______ where there are full transepts repeating the vaulted form.
Venice,
S. Giorgio Maggiore (1565) and
Il Rendentore (1576-7)
In the __________ at _______ (1580)
Palladio attempted to recreate an ancient Roman theater in a smaller, fully enclosed version. The tiers of seats banked to a semicircle rise to a colonnade at the rear, all beneath a painted sky.
Teatro Olimpico at Vicenza (1580)

Design as a major element in theatrical presentation surfaces here, introducing concepts from the theater into architectural and interior design.
Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy
1489 to 1539

Palace
Architect?
Benedetto da Maiano credited with designing the first story of the Palazzo Strozzi.

"Strozzi's design culminates the Florentine palazzo 'pattern,' which favors a flat facade of three stories—each level marked by a prominent full-width stringcourse (horizontal banding)—topped by an outsize cornice.... Stone of almost theatrical rustication commands the facade, with semicircular arches crowning all the major openings. Note that the radating voussoirs (wedge-shaped stones) of the arches increase in length as they rise to the keystone. Divided two-arched windows with varying ornamental panels are typical of the upper floors, while squarish windows mark the lower. A haughty main entrance leads to a central courtyard."
Farnese Palace
Rome, Italy
1534
palace, large house
Architect?
Antonio da Sangallo

Sangallo succeeded Raphael as master of works on St. Peter's Basilica in 1520. The efficient infrastructure of the Sangallo business allowed him to take on commissions for a large number of clients while he continued to devote a large portion of his energies on St. Peter's.

Although Sangallo was often viewed as more of a builder and engineer than an artist, he resisted the "mannerism" with which so many of his contemporaries attempted to emulate Michelangelo.
Farnese Palace description
"Palazzo Farnese, Rome, is the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century. The 56 m (185 ft) façade, occupying the longer side of a spacious piazza, is three storeys tall (recalling Florentine palaces) and thirteen bays wide. It is built of brick with strong stone quoins and has a heavily rusticated portal. Each storey has different window frames (alternating pediments for the piano nobile) placed in dense rows against the flat neutral wall surface, which enhances the sense of scale. The crowning cornice was substantially enlarged by Michelangelo (who also designed the window over the portal) and casts a heavier shadow onto the façade than that envisaged by Sangallo. Sangallo's spectacular three-aisled vestibule (c. 1520-), inspired for example by Roman nymphaea, with its central barrel vault supported on Doric columns, is notable for the sculptural quality of surface."
St. Peter's of Rome
Architect: Giacomo della Porta
Location: Vatican City, surrounded by Rome, Italy
date: 1546 to 1564 and 1590
"The medal by Caradosso (1506) and the partial plan drawn by Bramante (in the Uffizi, Florence), probably represent the earliest stage of the design, before the difficulties appeared which obliged the architect and his successors to propose, and in some cases implement, numerous changes. These changes related not only to the general conception of the plan—first a Greek cross, then a Latin one—but also to the plan of the transepts, which at one time were to have ambulatories; to the role of the Orders, first purely decorative (Bramante), then structural (Raphael, Michelangelo); and to the construction and shape of the dome, first with a single masonry shell (Bramante), then a double one (Sangallo, Michelangelo). The piers at the crossing, which were intended to support the dome, were one of the biggest problems; too slender in Bramante's plan, they were frequently reinforced... In the 17th century further important modifications were made by Bernini when he created the great colonnade that encircles the Piazza San Pietro."

Details

The brick dome 138 feet in diameter rises 452 feet above the street, and 390 feet above the floor, with four iron chains for a compression ring. Four internal piers each 60 feet square.The dome is 452 ft high (above the pavement) and is buttressed by the apses and supported internally by four massive piers more than 18 meters (60 feet) thick.
Early Renaissance names/places
1. Davanzati Palace in Florence
2. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), proposed a post tension construction on St. Lorenzo - Florence, the Pazzi Chapel, S. Croce, Florence, Cathedral, Florence.
3. Michelozzo, Pallazo Medici-Riccardi - Florence;
4. Benozzo Gozzoli - fresco painting in Medici Chapel..
5. Leon Battista Alberti. Wrote De Re Aedificatoria ('About Buildings) - church of S. Andrea at Mantua is Alberti's most influential work. Modeled space after one of the great ancient Roman baths. Demonstrates the use of simple proportional ratios.
The High Renaissance - names/bldgs
1. Donato Bramante - church of S. Maria presso S. Satiro - a square converted to a Greek cross by 4 columns that support the latern above. It serves as a chapel to the larger church - used optical perspective to make the end wall of the church into an illusionistic deep space by a painted bas-relief, appears as a barrel-vaulted chancel.
Donato Bramante - Tempietto, S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome represented a highly successful effort to adapt the vocabulary of Roman classicism to a circular domed structure. The building dominates the small monastic courtyard in which it stands.
2. Baldassare Peruzzi - Massami - in Rome
Late Renaissance and Mannerism
1. detail that break away from the rules
2. Michelangelo Buonarroti - High Renaissance Farnese Palace he inserted balcony over main entrance and added 3rd level in courtyard. S. Lorenzo in Florence - interiors have false window elements and complex doors. Michaelangelo's fmaous Medici tombs stand at either side of the space - give a strongly mannerist character tot he space.
3. Romano - Palazzo del Te at Mantua (fresco paintings) -Sala di Giganti - room of the giants
4. Palladio Renaissance classicism but not in mannerist style.
quadrantura
Illusionistic painting in perspective on walls or ceilings
quadro riportato
Paintings on panels set into a vault or paintings simulating this pattern.
di sotto in su
Ceiling painting in perspective with upward-looking illusion.
Bramante/St. Lorenzo was famous for 3 things:
1. poste tension
2. ribbed dome
3. lantern on top of dome

(chains in upper portion); 1st time post-tension used; no buttresses; didn't use wooden form for center either; skeletal ribs that helped - huge chains all around it/ pour slabs - wrap with steel-cable that can be tightened
nappa a padiglione
The most common form for a hood, tapering from a broad base to a narrow tent. It was sometimes decorated with the family's coat of arms, sometimes with scenes. Fireplace mantel (recessed) came later - made of limestone, marble - these would be used in a home today
Color Schemes in Italian Renaissance
Italians had a sophisticated understanding of the use of color for interior work.

Strong primary colors could be used when the walls were neutral colored plaster. Colors such as brilliant reds, blues, yellows, purples, and greens. In the later Renaissance, colors were softened. When brocades and damasks were used for wall treatments, the size of the room was taken into consideration in the selection of colors. Strong tones were still used in larger rooms, but delicate ones were selected for the smaller ones.
The della Robbias' typical subject matter was religious, and the most frequent subject was Madonna and Child usually displayed in circular forms or roundels, ringed with simple frame or wreaths of leaves, flowers, and citurs fruit.

Among the works of Luca della Robbia:
1. Roundeels of apostles and evangelists for the portico and the interior of Brunelleschi's Pazzi Chapel at S. Croce in Florence.

2. Most famous - executed by Andrea, was for a series of roundels showing foundling infants for the facade of Brunelleschi's Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence.
Metalwork

The Italians developed extraordinary ability as workers in both precious and base metals. While such artists as Sansovino, Ghiberti, and Verrocchio are best known for their figure sculpture, they did not hesitate to design:
decorative relief panels, lanterns, candelabra, ink stands, andrions, door hardware, knockers, and other articles of architecture and household use.
Intarsia
the technique of creating decorative patterns or representational scenes with small, thin pieces of wood or wood veneer. A virtuoso example of intarsia work lines the walls of the studiolo of Federico II da Montefeltro in the Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. Tiny pieces of veneer form a realistic picture of cabinetwork: some of the cabinet doors open to reveal books, statues, and mustical and scientific instruments.
pietra dura
A special type of mosaic that had been known in ancient Rome but for which the Italian Renaissance developed a great enthusiasm. It means hard stone. It was used often for the tops of important tables and for plaques and cabinet panels.

The main center for the art of pietra dura was Florence, where in 1588 the Grand Duke established a factory.
Scagliola
a technique for imitating marble. Used for columns, pilaster,s, moldings, and fireplace surrounds. It consists of plaster in which are embedded fine chips of marble and other minerals, especially a crystalline form of gypsum called selenite. Coloring can be added, and the result is generally given a high polish.
Renaissance motifs
artichoke
ogee curve was developed into an elongated S-shaped scroll
exotic beasts
scrolled or floral design
delicate tracery resembling work in wrought iron
cassone
chest or box of any kind, from the small jewel casket to the enormous and immovable wedding or dowry chest that was the most important piece of furniture in the Italian room. The cassone was also used as traveling baggage. The lid was hinged at the top and when the piece was closed, it could be used as a seat or a table. It served as the modern closet.
cassapanca
A large cassone with a back and arms added to it to form a settee or sofa. Both seating and storage (beneatht the seat. The cassapanca was a Florentine production. Loose cushions were used for comfort.
credenza
a cabinet with doors and drawers intended for storage of linen, dishes, and silverware. It was made in various sizes, and the smallest type was known as a credenzetta.
Several characteristic pieces of Italian Renaissance furniture:
1. Florentine Table
2. Dante Chair
3. Savonarola Chair
4. Armchair
5. Sgabello
6. Candlelabrum
7. Cassone
8. Cassapanca
Characteristics of Italian furniture:
1. placed against the wall
2. Use of walnut as a cabinet wood
3. architectural forms added to decoration of furniture - classic orders, acanthus leaf, grotesque, and arabesque for pointed arch, tracery, and linenfold
4. Enriched by carved relief patterns and by painted decorations consisting of cartouches, rinceaux, arabesques, grotesques, gadroon, dolphins, and other forms
5. frequently touched up with dull gold
chiaroscuro
Literally meaning "clear-obscure" an Italian term referring to a strong contrast of light and dark areas in painting.
Vittore Carpaccio, The Legend of St. Ursuala, 1490-98
In this schene the saint sleeps in an elegant late 15th-century Venetian bedroom, on a bed levated on a platform with a high canopy supported by posts at the foot. Open windows have leaded glass above and wicker screens below, as well as shutters.
the church of S. Maria presso S. Satiro is an example of what?
High Renaissance - it's also an example of the 'fool the eye' illusion because Bramante dealt with the issue of having no area for the t-shape plan by using the end wall of the church for an illusionistic deep space, making it appear as a barrel-vaulted chancel to complete a cruciform plan.
quattrocento
Italian term for the fifteenth century (literally, the 400s).
portugese boroco
referred to pearls that were distorted or irregular in shape
characteristics of mannerism
- departs from symmetry
- shifts in rhythm
- surprising, puzzling, amusing, theatrical
- figures are in motion/active composition
- dark grey against white
- false windows
- arches & pilasters
- like Islamic architecture - nothing left unadorned
Example of Mannerism in architecture
Church of Andrea Della Fratte
shapes in mannerism
from nature - leaves, shells, scross, room shapes become ellipses - 3-d scupltures
illusionistic views
- ovals & ellipses preferred to squares that give a sense of movement
- 16th and 17th centuries
- appears more often in religious building
baldachino
Italian term for a canopy resting on columns, usually built over an alter. Also called a ciborium.
Medici chapels
Wealthy merchants who had the money to support the artists:
- rondels
- della Robbias
- square pattern - like Alice in Wonderland
- ceiling 48'
San Andrea
Change in how they used architecurre
- no side aisles typical of barrel vault
- massive wall, niches
side chappels
- not typical of gothic arch. but still uses some of those things
- oculus
rococo
french & spanish - meaning shell like - overlaps neo-classic - 18th century
- appears more often in secular buildings