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54 Cards in this Set

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academy
a learned society coming from the imitation of Plato's academy; purpose of furthering arts, literature, science...
air de cour
(French) an accompanied French strophic song for 1 or 2 voices; Late Renaissance to Baroque
anthem
(England) evolved from and served the role of the Latin motet in Anglican/Protestant services; Latin titles but sung in English; usually simpler and more homophonic;
balletto
(Italian) dance-like homophonic vocal piece; late Renaissance by Giovanni Gastoldi; English and German form of this called ballett
basse danse
(French) one of a family of Renaissance dances having a gliding or walking step; mostly improvised; not many extant
Burgundian cadence
disguised V-I candence in Burgundian three-part music; highest voice from seventh to the octave (possibly by "Landino" way of sixth), middle voice leaps up an octave from dominant, lowest descends one step to tonic
cantus firmus
(Latin) a pre-exisiting chant melody which is the basis for a nw polyphonic composition
canzona
(Italian) a type of instrumental piece based on the chanson genre and it's form structure and lively rhythms
canzonetta/canzonet
(Italian) short piece of the canzona type for voices; light on character
chorale
a Protestant hymn typical of the Renaissance and Baroque; the hymn tune typically employed as a cantus firmus
concertato
(Italian) term derived from concerto meaning concerto-like in reference to contrasting instrumental and/or vocal groups in music of late 16th and 17th centuries; works by Gabrieli
consort
(English) a term meaning small instrumental ensemble in 17th century; "whole" meaning all of one type "broken" meaning various instruments
consort song
late 16th early 17th century composition for one or two voices with consort accompaniment often viols; William Byrd...
contrafactum
(Latin) substitution of a new text for an old one; secular tunes with Protestsnt chorale texts
cori spezzati
(Italian) divided choirs; polychoral; originates in 16th century Venice
cross-relation
the appearance of a note in two versions, one chromatically altered, within the space of a measure or so in two different voices; also could describe the effect of the presence of a tritone
cyclic principle
the use of the same or closely related thematic material in some or all the movement of a large work like a Renaissance Mass
diminutions
improvised embellishments using faster motion or shorter note values
familiar style
refers to passages on vocal music with chordal or homophonic texture as opposed to a learned contrapuntal style
fantasia
(Italian) term encompassing a large variety of improvisitory pieces from Renaissance thru Romantic; usually for lute or keyboard in 16th and 17th centuries
fauxbourdon
(French) controversial term referring to three voices singing basically in 1st inversion (or sixth chords); frequently employed by Dufay
figured music
term used pre 1600's to mean polyphony as opposed to plainchant; especially the style of the Netherlanders
frottola
(Italian) aristocratic secular song usually for solo performance in the middle Renaissance; popular dance-like character; treble dominated style of a lighter style and texture than the madrigal
galliard
(French) fast dance in triple meter usually preceded by a pavane as a paired set
gorgia
(Italian) diminutions in vocal music
Lied
(Germany) German polyphonic song which flowered in the Renaissance (relatively late compared to other regions)
madrigalism/madrigalian
the highly developed use of tone-painting in the madrigal; this characteristic appeared in chanson and motet
modal/modality
based on the church modes before advent of tonal music; original modes were dorian, phrygian, lydian, and mixolydian; ionian and aeolian added in Renaissance leading to tonality
motto theme
a motive that appears at the beginning of several or all of the movement of a Renaissance Mass
paraphrase
a varied version of a given melody in the Renaissance; often used by Dunstable, Dufay, and Josquin
parody
reworking a polyphonic composition (like a chanson or motet) so that it forms the basis for a Mass
passamezzo
(Italian) moderately fast dance in quadruple meter often followed by a saltarello
pavane
(French) dignified courtly dance in a slow duple meter; frequently paired with a galliard
points of imitation
sections beginning contrapuntally with the same motive in each voice; imitation
polychoral
emplying 2 or possibly more distinct choirs or groups of instruments; as in works of Gabrieli
psalter
book of musical settings for Protestant congregational singing
ricercare
(Italian) term for a type of instrumental work often for keyboard in the 16th century with many point of imitation; anticipated the later fugue because they often started with single theme
service
musical portion of the Anglican liturgy including portions from the Mass Ordinary; "Short" of concise and syllabic or "Great" if expanded contrapuntally; in Renaissance cultivated by Tye, Tallis, and Byrd;
sortisatio
(Italian) improvisation of counterpoint over a given type; aka discantus supra librum and contrappunto alla mente
tactus
(Latin) a continuing but unaccented pulse; specific in Renaissance as relatively fixed in duration as opposed to the later extremely flexible
toccata
(Italian) an idiomatic keyboard genre in improvisatory style
tone-painting
the art of depicting word meanings or imitating natural sounds in musical tones
variations
type of composition based on varied repetition of a theme or harmonic pattern with the overall structure of phrases or sections being maintained throughout; first in Spain and England with Cabezon and Byrd then synthesized by Duthcman Sweelinck
verse-anthem
alternates solo sections with with sections of full choir; Byrd in late Renaissance
villancico
(Spanish) Spanish Renaissance song similar to Italian ballata: written for 3 and 4 voices and also for accompanied solo voice
villanella
(Italian) popular type of chordal song in Reniassance
cornetto
(Italian) tubular wooden instrument with fingerholes and cup-shaped mouthpiece; used Middle Ages through Baroque
zink
(German) tubular wooden instrument with fingerholes and cup-shaped mouthpiece; used Middle Ages through Baroque
crumhorn
curved double reed Renaissance instrument with a nearly cylindrical pipe and wind cap covering the reeds
douchaine
(French) probably a straight-capped shawm with a mellower softer tone
lute
plucked string instrument with fretted fingerboard, pear-shaped body, and bent back pegbox; usually 11 strings tuned to 6 pitches
regal
small reed organ
vihuela
(Spanish) 16th century Spanish guitar
viol
bowed string instrument with frets; 16th and 17th centuries before violin