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30 Cards in this Set

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Covenant
The relationship established between God and Israel at Sinai. Christians believe that a new covenant exists between God and the church.
Hellenism
The culture and ideas of ancient Greece.
Diaspora
The dispersion of the Jews outside their Palestinian homeland.
Cyprian
Bishop of Carthage (249-58), he write extensively in defense of the unity of the Church and important of bishops
Novatian
The leader of a rigorist faction in the Roman Church in the mid third century, he sought to exclude apostates. His faction was ultimately defeated by Cyprian of Carthage and others who urged a more moderate policy.
Justin Martyr
(ca. 100- ca. 165) Author of two Apologies, he is noted for being among the first Christian thinkers to point to common features linking Christianity and Greek philosophy.
Tertullian
(ca. 160- ca. 225) A resident of North Africa; one of the first great Latin theologians noted particularly for apologetic writings.
Clement
(ca. 150- ca. 215) An Alexandrian theologian, he was especially concerned with establishing links between Christianity and Greek philosophy
Origen
(ca. 185- ca. 254) An influential leader of the Alexandrian school of theology, he called for the allegorical interpretation of scripture and made extensive use of ideas from Platonism and Neo-Platonism.
Asceticism
Rigorous denial of the body or the purpose of spiritual growth
Jerome
(ca. 345- ca. 420) Bible scholar, polemicist, and translator of the Vulgate, the standard Latin version of the Bible from the fifth century to the present.
Benedict of Nursia
A sixth-century monk whose Benedictine Rule became the basis of western monasticism.
Irenaeus
Originally from Asia Minor, he became the bishop of Lyons in southern France in 178. His Against Heresies defends orthodox Christianity again Gnosticism and other heresies.
Ignatius of Antioch
Bishop of Antioch and one of antiquity’s most famous martyrs, he is noted for his letters to the churches of Asia Minor in which he defended the reality of Christ’s physical suffering.
Christological
The branch of Christian theology that deals with the identity and work of Christ.
Patriarchs
An honorific title given in antiquity to the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria. In the modern Eastern Orthodox Church, the bishop of Moscow is considered a patriarch.
Cappadocian Fathers
Three fourth century theologian from Cappadocia in Asia Minor- Basil the Great, Gregory of Nasianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa- who made important contributions to theology in general and to the Eastern Orthodox tradition in particular.
Theotokos
A Greek term meaning “god-bearer” used to honor the Virgin Mary
John Chrysostom
Bishop of Constantinople, theologian and one of the most influential preachers in antiquity.
Ambrose
Theologian and bishop of Milan. He introduced the concepts and terminology of the Greek east to the Latin Church.
Augustine
(354-430). Bishop of Hippo in North Africa, leading Latin theologian, and founder of the Augustinian order of monks
Carolingians
Members of a Frankish dynasty founded in 751 by Pepin and including Charlemagne
Donation of Constantine
A forged document, composed in the second half of the eighth century that claimed to be Constantine’s account of his conversion and fifth to the pope of the western half of the Roman Empire.
Charlemagne
Frankish king and, later, emperor who extended his rule over most of western Europe.
Feudalism
The political, social, and economic system that prevailed in most of Europe in the Middle Ages, in which lords granted the use of land to lesser lords, or vassals, in exchange for their military service.
Justinian
Early Byzantium emperor known for his codification of Roman Law and attempted reconquest of western territories lost to Germanic tribes.
Caesaropapism
- A system in which the secular ruler has absolute authority over the Church, as well. This term was originally devised to describe the relationship between church and state in the Byzantine Empire.
Purgatory
A state or place in the afterlife between Heaven and Hell where souls are cleansed of sins committed in life.
Transubstantiation
According to Roman Catholicism, the miraculous process by which the break and wine used in the Eucharist become the body and blood of Christ.
Immaculate Conception
The doctrine proclaimed by Pope Pius OX in 1854, that by a miracle that occurred at the moment of her conception the Virgin Mary was free from the stain of original sin.