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88 Cards in this Set

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Pharisees
scribes and rabbis. In power during Babolonyan exile. They believe in a judgement day and in a physical resserection -- as well as a body/soul dichotomy.
Sadducees
The priests. They don't believe in judgement or resserectin.
Essenes
Believed they were the only righteous jew who would survive the upcoming Apocolypse. Believed Messiah would come from this group.
Zealots
Rebelled violently against Rome.
Qumran Community
Believed they were the only righteous jew who would survive the upcoming Apocolypse.
Herod
Jewish king initiated by the Romans to lead Israel.
Pontius Pilate
In 6 C.E. direct Roman Rule begins. ________ was the man appointed as prefect.
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther's 16th century movement to reform the Catholic Church. Posts 95 Theses.
Jesus of Nazareth
Jewish teacher? The redeemer of man?
Paul of Tarsus
Originally Saul. Has a mythical experience on the road to Damascus.
faith vs. law
Paul stresses faith while more traditional Jews emphasize law.
Gentile
non-Jews
snyoptic Gospels
Matthew, Mark, Luke. Three books from the "Q source" or Quella.
"Q"
Quella. Matthew and Luke are depedent upon this source.
Kingdom of Heaven
The goal of Christianity as explained by Jesus Christ. The _______ __ _____ is found within each and every person who accepts Christ as his or her saviour.
The Gospel of Thomas
New Testament era document found in 1945 that lists the sayings of Jesus Christ. This document refers to Christ simply as "Jesus"
Gospel of Mary Magdalene
Gnostic text believed to be written or influenced by Jesus' mother, Mary Magdalene. Discusses the ascension of Christ and source of human failing and mortality.
The Great Schism
The division of Christanity into its Latin(Western) and Greek (Eastern) branches in 1054.
baptism
A religious act of purification by water usually associated with membership in the Christian Church.
Eucharist
From a greek word meaning "thanksgiving". A ritual re-enactment of the Last Supper (bread/body // wine/blood)
Teresa of Avila
Mystical reformer who was a prominent figure in the Catholic Reformation. Claimed to have found spiritual ecstasy.
rite of passage
A ritual or ceremony signifying an event in a person's life indicative of a transition from one stage to another, as from adolescence to adulthood.
liminal/liminoid
A period during a "rite of passage" in which experieces a spiritual and or social status. The second period according to the write Gennep.
communitas
A sense of community.
sacrifice
A part of ritual involving the giving of a gift to God.
Muhammad
Arab prophet of Islam. At the age of 40 he began to preach as God's prophet of the true religion. ________ established a theocratic state at Medina after 622 and began to convert Arabia to Islam. He is the chief prophet of God.
Islam
Major world religion -- litereally means "submission; to surrender oneself."
Kaaba
A black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine; believed to have been given by Gabriel to Abraham; Muslims turn in its direction when praying
Sunni
The branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad.
Shii
A member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam that regards Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who succeeded him.
imam
A.) One of a succession of seven or twelve religious leaders, believed to be divinely inspired, of the Shiʿites.
B.) A Priest in the Islamic faith.
Qur'an
The sacred text of Islam, divided into 114 chapters, or suras: revered as the word of God, dictated to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel, and accepted as the foundation of Islamic law, religion, culture, and politics.
hadith
A traditional account of things said or done by Muhammad or his companions. Means "the news".
jihad
Holy war
shirk
Viewing an object or person as equal to or higher than Allah.
Five Pillars
Faith or belief in the Oneness of God and the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad;
Establishment of the daily prayers;
Concern for and almsgiving to the needy;
Self-purification through fasting; and
The pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are able.
Sufism
A form of Islamic mysticism.
Kongzi
The esteemed Chinese thinker Confucius.
Analects
A record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples, as well as the discussions they held.
Heaven (Tian)
God/heaven in Confucianism.
humanity (jen/ren)
human heartedness. The potential within us all to be "humane" and kind beings.
ritual property (li)
principle of gain, benefit; in general,
"principle," propriety, ritual, social order.
honorable person (chun-tzu)
the ideal person; the superior man
Tao
Chinse character translated as 'way" or "path".
virtue (te)
literally means "power," but the concept has a far wider meaning. The power needed to rule, according to Confucius, consists of more than mere physical might.
Fingarette's interpretation of li
umm... li means property. Something to do with ritual. Ritual and property?
Vedas
The oldest collection of Hindu sacred texts. They include the Rig, the Brahmanas, and the Upanishads. They were written between 1500 and 500 b.c.
Upanishads
The latest of the writings to be considered part of the Vedas, written between the eighth and third centuries bce. These are collections of stories, discussions, and instructions addressing issues of the relationship between the human and the ultimate realms.
Three Great Gods
Kirshna, Brahman, and Shiva.
Devi
Hindu term for "God" or "Gods"
Shakti
Literally, "power." Usually, the worship of the goddesses, who all represent some form of power.
Four Varna
Brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra.
caste
The western term for varna. ______ provide the major divisions of Hindu society.
path of knowledge
Jnana Yoga.
path of devotion
Bhakti yoga.
bhakti
Practices of worship or devotion to a Hindu god or goddess.
Four Stages of Life
Hindu stages of life before renuncing life and becoming a Sanyasin.
"twice-born"
The upper three castes whose males go through a "re-birth" ceremony when they come-of-age at around 12.
Indus River Valley
Location where Hinduism originated from.
Ganges River
A holy river.
Aryans
A group of people who emigrated from the west into the upper Indus Valley and the nearby territory around 1500 bce. They conquered the Dravidians and established what is now termed the Vedic culture.
Agni
The Hindu god of fire.
Soma
An intoxicating or hallucinogenic beverage, used as an offering to the Hindu gods and consumed by participants in Vedic ritual sacrifices.
Indra
the chief of the Vedic gods, the god of rain and thunder
Kali
A goddess who is one of the wives of Shiva. She represents the wild, destructive character. She is often linked to death, wearing a necklace of human skulls, a skirt of human limbs, and with blood dripping from her weapons. At times, she can even overcome her husband.
Saraswati
The sakti or wife of Brahma; the Hindoo goddess of learning, music, and poetry.
niguna-brahman
The impersonal Brahman.
Atman
An individual's soul or self. The ultimate goal in Hinduism is to achieve moksha through the realization that one's _____ and Brahman are the same thing. This is accomplished through different types of yoga .
Karma
The Sanskrit term meaning "action." It refers to a concept in which the results of one's actions accumulate over one's life. Upon death, an individual's ______ -this store of the results of actions-determines whether one is reborn in a higher or lower status.
Samara
The cycle of death and rebirth in both Hinduism and Buddhism.
Maya
The true nature of the cosmos we can see. In Sanskrit, the word means "illusion," but that does not just mean that it is imaginary. Instead, since it is what we can see, we must deal with it and live within it.
Ramayana
The long epic that tells the story of Rama and his love for Sita, her capture, the long series of battles and quests Rama carries out to free her, and the aftermath.
Mahabharata
The second-century bce epic about Krishna and the five royal Pandu brothers who must battle their Kuru cousins. It contains the famous Bhagavad Gita.
Bhagavad-gita
The section of the Mahabharata in which Krishna reveals himself to Arjuna and in a long theological discussion describes the main components of karma yoga.
Arjuna
he chief hero of the Bhagavad-Gita, befriended by Krishna, who appears as his charioteer and advises him on duty and the immortality of the soul.
Krishna
an avatar of Vishnu and one of the most popular of Indian deities, who appears in the Bhagavad-Gita as the teacher of Arjuna.
OM/AUM
The most famous mantra, used as a meditational device in many forms of yoga. This sound is believed to be an aspect of the creation of the cosmos.
mantra
a word or formula, as from the Veda, chanted or sung as an incantation or prayer.
prana
in yoga, the breath seen as one of the life-giving energies or forces of the universe; also, the processes of breath control.
darsan
one of six orthodox philosophical systems or viewpoints on the nature of reality and the release from bondage to karma
Sanskrit
Language of India and Hinduism.
puja
An offering (usually flowers, food, adoration, music, etc.) to a god or goddess.
Brahmanism/Hinduism
the religious and social system of the Brahmans and orthodox Hindus, characterized by the caste system and diversified pantheism.
ascerticism
the doctrine that a person can attain a high spiritual and moral state by practicing self-denial, self-mortification, and the like.
Shankara
Hindu Vedantist philosopher and teacher from the 8th century
yoga
a school of Hindu philosophy advocating and prescribing a course of physical and mental disciplines for attaining liberation from the material world and union of the self with the Supreme Being or ultimate principle. means "union"
theophany
a manifestation or appearance of God or a god to a person.
three gunas
one of the three qualities of prakriti, or nature, which are passion (rajas), dullness or inertia (tamas), and goodness or purity (sattva).