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26 Cards in this Set

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Apostolic Fathers
These were the earliest fathers of the church, and were thought to have known the apostles of their immediate successors.
Apostolic Succession
This is the direct link between the leaders of the church (bishops) and Jesus and his apostles. It was established in response to the gnostics.
Avignon Papacy
This refers to the period of time when five Catholic popes lived in the city of Avignon, in France. The Avignon papacy led to the Great Schism, and divided Christendom.
Caesaropapism
Means "caesar as pope"
This word indicates a view of church-state relations in which both the state and the church are under the hands of a lay person.
Catacombs
An underground cemetery consisting of chambers or tunnels with recesses for graves.
Christendom
This word refers to the cultural world that came into existence during the High Middle Ages in Europe. Catholicism dominated Europe. Everyone was Catholic and it was central to their lives.
Counciliarism
The idea that the general council has more authority than the Pope. This arose during the Council of Constance.
Council of Constance
This Church Council put an end to the schism. There went back to being just one pope, in Rome. Out of the council of Constance arose the idea of counciliarism.
Council of Jerusalem
This was the first church council. It was called to answer the question, "Should Gentiles conert to Judaism before becoming Christian?" They answered no, which then established Christianity as its own religion.
Council of Nicea
The first technical church council. It was held in 325. A priest named Arius was claiming that Jesus was not divine, only human; that Jesus was not part of the trinity. In response, the bishops wrote the Nicene Creed. This helped establish early church practices.
Crusades
Holy wars intended to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims. Three out of four were military failures and spiritual disasters. The fourth was led by Pope Innocent III, who was accused of trying to run a theocracy, which is a form of government where civil power is in the hands of religious leaders.
Ecumenical Councils
Church councils called together to solve problems in the Catholic Church.
Edict of Milan
Written in 313, this document ended the great persecution and legalized Christianity.
Evangelization
This means "spreading the word of the Gospel". Most monasteries try to do this.
Fourth Lateran Council
A council called by Pope Innocent III. It clearly defined transubstantiation as the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ.
Friars and Monks
Men who lived in monasteries, places for evangelization. Some groups of monks were the Benedictines, the Cistercians, the Dominicans, and the Franciscans.
gnostics
gnostic means "knowledge"
gnostics claimed to have special knowledge about the life and death of Jesus.
They claimed that Jesus was not born of Virgin Mary, that Jesus did not die on the cross, and that Jesus was not human. In response to the gnostics, the Church did three things. They wrote the apostles creed, completed the new testament, and established apostolic succession.
Gothic Architecture
Had three parts.
1) Staned glass windows, for those who could not read.
2) Flying butresses, which supported the high ceilings.
3) Tall ceilings, for a feeling of looking up and being closer to God.
Gregorian Reform
Did 3 things...
1) Ended lay investure (the appointing of preists and bishops by non-clergy)
2) Ended corruption of the church by secular leaders
3)Paved the way for a renewal of leadership in the church.
Lay Investiture
This was the appointing of clergy by secular leaders. The Gregorian Reform ended this.
Monasticism
The monastic life or system, especially as practiced in a monastery.
Schism of 1054
Pepin, a king of the Franks, won a decisive battle carrying the Christian cross. His entire kingdom converted to Christianity. His son, Charles (who became known as Charlemagne, was crowned emperor by Pope Leo. Therefore, there were two emperors in the Roman Empire. So, it split into two parts. The East became Orthodox, and the West remained Roman Catholics. Both sides are the same, except Eastern Orthodox does not follow the leadership of the Pope. The split occured b/c of political reasons, not religious.
St. Antony
A man from Egypt, called "father of the monks"
First man to leave the city, and seek a hermits life of solitude in the deserts of Egypt. He had thousands of followers, and the first monastic community was formed. The popes saw an oppurtunity, and turned monasteries into centers of evangelization.
St. Benedict
Most famous of all the monks.
Wrote the Rule of Benedict, which was a guide teaching monks how to live a monastic life. Benedictine monasteries were autonomous, meaning all the monasteries worked seperately.
Transubstantiation
The change from the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ.
monastic
living alone, away from the world