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111 Cards in this Set

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163 BC
Judah defeated by Lysias at Beth-Zechariah and bro Eleazar killed
proclaims himself regent of Antiochus V, who is 8; both are killed by Antiochus IV's bro Demetrius I Soter
161 BC
Judah wins battle against Nicanor, for the Seleucids, and signs a treaty w/the romans (consistently try to keep seleucid empire weak so support the maccabees
160 BC
Judah kill by Bacchides, sent by Demetrius I, and high priest Alcimus dies: no high priest for 7 years
who takes leadership after judah killed?
his brother jonathan
How does Jonathan establish himself as ruler of Judea?
in 152 BC, he exploits struggle over seleucid throne between demetrius I and Alexander Balas (son of Antiochus IV)
How does jonathan get to be high priest AND general/governor of judea?
both demetrius and balas make offers but he accepts balas' concessions in exchange for his support
what is the problem with being high priest AND political administrator?
high priest can't have blood on hands but jonathan killed ppl; also not a descendent from zadokites' line of priesthood; generations many factions like pro-hasmoneans and religious conservatives
who takes over after jonathan?
simon, the last survivor of the 5 brothers; assumed leadership and high priesthood
What were simon's achievements?
1. built family mausoleum at modiin: began behaving like Greeks when that was the purpose of the revolt
2. gained complete independence from seleucids
141 BC
1. captures akra (citadel) in jeru. and destroys it
2. renews treaty of amicitia (friendship and alliance) w/romans
3. granted right to mint own coins by antiochus VII
134 BC
killed through act of treachery by bro-in-law ptolemy (idumean)
who succeeds simon?
son John Hyrcanus (134-104 BC)
what are john hyrcanus' achievements?
1. conquers adjoining areas: idumea, samaria, transjordan
2. destroys sam. temple on mt. gerizim: considered schismatic
3. forces conversion of idumeans and non-jews: can only remain in country if circumcised and observed jewish laws (exiled antipas, grandpa of herod)
4. breaks with pharisees and sides w/sadducees
who succeeds john hyrcanus?
son aristobulus I in 104 BC
what does aristobulus I do?
1. has mother and bros imprisoned, 1 bro killed
2. first hasm. to call himself king
3. conquered golan heights and forced itureans to convert (judaization of upper galilee)
who succeeds aristobulus I?
brother Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC)becomes king and high priest; marries ari. wife salome alexandra when she frees them
his marriage to bro's wife?
jewish law prohibits high priest from marrying widows; disregard for this aroused opposition, esp. from pharisees
90 BC-during Sukkot
Jannaeus pour holy water on ground instead of altar; ppl throw citrons at him so he kills 6000
-open rebellion broke out and opponents went to seleucid king demetrius III to for help; when he invaded, they went back to jannaeus
what did jannaeus do to the rebels?
brought them back to jeru. and crucified 800
Pesher on Nahum
Qumran work that describes this civil war
seekers of smooth things
name Essenes gave Pharisees b/c not seekers of law but of easy way out
who succeeds jannaeus?
wife Salome alexandra in 76 BC
-made peace w/romans
Alexandra becomes queen but what about high priest?
appoints john hyrcanus II b/c couldnt' be herself
who becomes dominant authority during her reign?
pharisees, after advice of jannaeus
who succeeds alexandra?
hyrcanus II in 67 BC w/support of pharisees
civil war btw hyrc. and bro aristobulus II (supported by sadducees and more ambitious)
-antipater (son of antipas and father of herod the great) sides w/hyr. b/c wants some control and easier w/weaker ruler
-suggests assistance from nabateans, a non-jewish semitic ppl neighboring hasm. in south
Late Republic
-1st century BC
-series of military dictators/powerful generals who seized control
-no stable succession so frequent eruption of wars btw generals over control
general in rome who intervenes when campaigning in E. Med.
what did pompey do?
-besieged jeru. and enters Temple; Jews lose independence
-rewards hyr. for support w/high priesthood
-ari. and sons (mattathias antigonus and alexander) taken captive in rome
-dismembered hasm. kingdom and established decapolis
league of most hellenized cities; wanted to strengthen hell. elements to be loyal to rome
-Beth-shean/scythopolis, pella, abila
-part of newly-established roman province of syria
63-31 BC: 3 decades after pompey's conquest
decline of the republic
struggle btw caesar and pompey
ari. and sons escape and return to judea repeatedly to fight; caught up in their fight
-caesar releases ari. from prison and armed w/2 legions against pompey's supporters in syria
-pompey's patrons poison ari.
-alexander tried in antioch by scipio (pompey's father-in-law) and beheaded
48 BC
-pompey dies
-hyr. and antipater side w/caesar
-antipater made procurator (governor) and hyr. made ethnarch (ruler) of jews
antipater had two sons
phasael and herod
-in charge of galilee; attacked hezekiah who was waging guerilla war there: had him executed w/men at mock trial
-jews mad and summoned to sanhedrin (jewish law court); dressed in royal purple w/armed guards; romans intervene when almost sentenced to death
who does herod take refuge with?
sextus caesar: roman governor of syria
-he is appointed strategos of coele-syria and city samaria
43 BC
antipater murdered by malichus, a supporter of hyr. (herod' orders)
-granddaughter of hyr. and ari.
-engaged to herod
-herod's ticket into hasm. family
42 BC
Cassius and Brutus (assassins of Caesar) defeated at Philippi by Octavian and Marc Antony
-last gasp of roman republic
-rule of lands now split; antony has E and Octavian has W
Marc Antony
-meet jews complaining of herod
-other delegation in antioch complains too
-rejects complaints and follows hyr. advice to support herod
-made bros "tetrarchs of judea"
40 BC
Syria overrun by Parthians
who do the parthians have w/them?
-go to judea and has positive affect/reception
what does antigonus do when returns?
takes over throne and captures hyr. II and Phasael
-Phasael commits suicide
what does antigonus do to hyrc. II?
-bites off his ears so disqualified as high priest; taken captive to parthia
herod and cleopatra
in egypt, greeted w/magnificent reception from cleo because wants to use him to re-establish ptolemaic rule
Why is Antigonus beheaded and who does it?
-Herod goes to Rome and appointed king of judea by roman senate w/antony's support
-during this, antigonus extending control over idumea; in battle w/herod's bro joseph and he dies
-herod invades judea and lays siege to jeru. to avenge death; marries mariamne
-jeru. falls in 37 BC; antigonus surrenders and beheaded by antony
obscure figure appointed high priest by herod to keep it weak and consolidate power
first phase of herod' reign
-until battle of actium in 31 BC: difficulty in solidifying rule and threat posed by cleo; attempts by hasm. to regain authority
second phase of herod's reign
-until 10BC: age of prosperity but w/major domestic problems
third phase of herod's reign
-until death in 4BC: domestic turmoil and international tensions
how are the hasm. part of herod's household?
Mariamne: wife
Alexandra: mother-in-law; wants to get things back the most
Aristobulus III
-Mariamne's bro and grandson of Hyr. II and Ari. II; popular
-Herod passes over him for high priest initially; then has him drowned
31 BC
-Herod has Hyr. II executed to end hasm. threat after he returns from parthian captivity
-gives bro-in-law joseph secret orders to kill mariamne if anything happens to him
Cleo's marriage to Antony
-37-36 BC
-Antony already married to Octavian's sis Octavia; leaves her for cleo and rome in civil war again
-gives her some of herod's land: decapolis cities, palestinian coast, etc.
Battle of Actium
-31 BC
-Octavian confirms Herod king of judea and enlarges kingdom by giving him back land cleo got
-antony and cleo die
27 BC
Roman senate gives octavian title of augustus
How do mariamne and alexandra die?
-Before Herod left for rhodes to see octavian, locked up family in fortress at masada and alexandrium
-rumor mariamne had affair w/guard; has both killed
-alexandra moves to gain control of garrison and killed
Why is he known as Herod "the Great"?
-sponsored many building projects in palestine and roman world
*caesarea maritima
*2nd temple in jeru.
-builds platform before tears down to comfort jews
-temple under construction 46 years
talk about 5 kids Mariamne bore herod
-23 BC: sent two to rome
*Alexander and Aristobulus
-17 BC: return to jeru. and herod arranged distinguished marriages for them
-non-hasm. relatives jealous, esp. salome and antipater
-12 BC: announced before augustus w/treason and imprisoned then strangled
who says "it is better to be herod's pig than his son" and why?
Augustus says this b/c of herod's futile relationship w/most his family members, esp. his sons
-he is very paranoid
herod's death
-4 BC
-has 10,000 distinguished figures killed so will mourn at death
-riots erupt in judea over his rule, not him
-legate in syria
-suppressed uprisings w/3 legions, crucifying 2,000 rebels
high ranking man in antioch and small districts administered by others and report to him
characteristics of judea/palestine for next 70 years
1. diversity of mvts. and splinter parties in judaism, often violently opposed to each other
2. romans contributed to unrest w/ineptitude and gree
3. native leadership ineffective, caught btw local pop. and romans
4. jews struggled to gain ind. and self-govt.
5. messianic aspirations and apocalyptic visions triggered disturbances and gave rise to self-appointed leaders
who received herod's kingdom?
-divided between 3 sons
herod archelaus
-4 BC to 6 AD
-oldest son of sam. malthace
-got judea, idumea, samaria
-shortest reign: 10 years b/c so cruel that augustus removed him in 6 AD and exiled to gaul
-territory placed under prefect/procurator under legate
herod philip
-4 BC to 33/34 AD
-only to rule till death
-got Golan (pop. by gentiles)
-married to herodius, daughter of herod's sis salome but childless
-after death, territory under legate for direct roman rule
herod antipas
-4 BC to 39 AD
-youngest w/malthace
-got galilee and peraea
-longest reign
What building projects is antipas known for?
-rebuilt sepphoris in galilee
-found new capital city on sea of galilee called tiberius
What happened btw. antipas and herodius?
-He married daughter of nabatean king, but fell in love w/herodius
-herodius agreed to break w/husband if antipas divorced wife despite pentateuchal law forbidding marriage to bro's wife
What does he do to John the Baptist?
-executes him
-Gospels attribute this to his condemnation of unorthodox marriage
-josephus says b/c antipas feared his mvt. might lead to political unrest
How does his affair lead to his downfall?
-after caligula, the roman emperor, gave herod agrippa I (herodius' bro) title of king, herodius pushed antipas to seek same title
-agrippa I convinces caligula that antipas was conspiring; he was deposed and exiled to Lyon in Gaul and agrippa given his territory
What happens in 6 AD when herod archelaus deposed?
-caesarea maritima became military headquarters and adm. capital for romans
-no major concentration of roman troops in region; all w/legate
-one cohort in jeru. in antonia fortress
Pontius Pilate
-fifth prefect (26-36 AD)
-Philo describes him negatively: relentless, bribes, robs, insults, etc.
What about undecorated standards and pilate?
-predecessors stationed troops in jeru. w/undecorated standards
*figured images offensive to jews so practice stopped
-pilate sent troops into jeru. at night carrying effigies of emperor; withdrew when confronted
jesus' death and pilate
-suppression of potentially threatening situation
-jews complaining but can't find incriminating thing; turned over to herod antipas but returned to him w/robes on jesus
pilate's dismissal from office
-group of armed sam. follow leader to mt. gerizim to find sacred tabernacle treasures
-pilate ordered to block them and battle
-executed leader and most infuential sam; they appeal to legate and pilate on trial and replaced
Herod Agrippa I
-37 to 44 AD
-grandson of herod the great and mariamne (hasm.)
-grew up in rome to be educated and friends w/caligula
Gaius Caligula
-37 to 41 AD
-"little boots"
-ruled in moderation initially and popular, then considered himself a god and behaved accordingly
-riot against jews
-jews in egypt became objects of abuse by gentile neighbors b/c refused to participate in emperor worship
-jews sent delegation to rome under philo
-syrian legate ordered by Gaius to convert jeru. temple into shrine for imperial cult w/statue of himself
-stalls b/c knew bad idea
How does Agrippa I raise his status in eyes of jews?
-hears about Gaius' order and get him to repeal it
-saved the temple
41 AD
-Caligula assassinated
Why is agrippa popular when he receives herod's former kingdom?
-he has hasm. blood
Was agrippa I an observant jew?
-ancient jew. sources speak positively of his piety and devotion to ppl and law
-but not observant; most his coins depict human images, pagan temples and deities, etc.
How does christian tradition describe him?
-as persecutor of developing church
-had james beheaded and peter arrested
Agrippa's death
-41 AD at 54
-claudius doesn't appoint herod agrippa II, oldest son, to succeed as king (still young)
-all palestine made part of roman province syria, under administration of procurator who reports to legate
cuspius fadus
-44 to 46 AD
-attacks groups of messianic figure theudas and decapitates him
tiberius julius alexander
-46 to 48 AD
-repudiated his jew. faith and aided in siege of jeru.
ventidius cumanus
-48 to 52 AD
-leads troops against jews and kills many when they join galileans against samaritans
-dismissed and exiled when claudius declares. sam. guilty and punishes them
antonius felix
-known for 3 marriages, all to royal families
*g-daughter of antony and cleo
*daughter of agrippa I
-conditions grow more anarchic under him
agrippa II
-given old territories of herod philip and chalcis
-given oversight of jeru. temple and appoints high priests
-given more land when nero becomes emperor
-faithful vassal of rome
*tried to prevent outbreak of first revolt then sides w/romans
-dies in 92 AD
-violent terrorist group
-urban terrorists who assassinate ppl in daylight at festivals and crowds; stabbed enemies w/concealed daggers then joined in cries of horror
paul arrested
-not crucified b/c claimed roman citizen and entitled to trial
-prison for 2 years
procius festus
-sends paul to rome and executed there in 62 AD
-controversy btw agrippa II and jeru. establishment
wall around temple
-agrippa II adds floor on old hasm. palace over Temple Mount to see activites in temple
-jeru. leaders build high wall to prevent this; obstructs view of roman guards
-nero sides w/jews and wall stays
nero's wife a "god-fearer"
gentiles who observed some jewish customs w/o converting
-new high priest
-charges james "the just" for breaking jew. law
-removed from office
james "the just"
-bro of jesus and leader of early christian community in jeru.
-stoned to death by sanhedrin
-probly pious and devout; moderate jews and phar. brings charges against ananus to agrippa II
-new procurator after festus
lucceius albinus and gessius florus
-last two procurators
-most ruthless and greedy
-stripped cities and ruined populations
-community NW of Dead Sea where Dead Sea Scrolls were found
Cave 1
-where the ancient scrolls were first found in 1946/47
-7 complete/near complete scrolls
-this boy wandered into cave 1 and found scrolls
-took "leather" and sold to cobbler Kando
-couldn't read it so contacts patriarch of syriac church and offers him 4 scrolls for $100
-offers other 3 to israeli biblical scholar and arch. sukenik
roland de vauxs
-french biblical scholar and arch.
-led expedition to Qumran 1951-1956 to look around discovery area
Teacher of Righteousness
-a dispossessed Zadokite priest
Wicked Priest
-a usurper
Lion of the Wrath
Man of Lies