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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Religious Traditions are

1
-constructed out of particular socioeconomic situations and change over time.
Religious Tradtions contain

2
-a systematic set of beliefs that are acted upon and sustained by rituals and institutions
Ethos is the

3
-style of life for a culture and its set of ethical guidelines
Religious Tradtions construct

4
-an ethos that defines taboo lines between acceptable and inappropriate behavior, defines identities, legitimizes social orders and criticizes them, provides guidelines for everyday life.
Religion, today faces challenges from

5
-modernism and multiculturalism.

-scientific critiques of beliefs and scriptures.

-competing views of the world, multiple traditions.
Fundamentalism/Traditionalism is the

6
-revitalization of ancient tradtions

-based on the belief that there was a golden age of religion to which we should return
Civil Religion is the

7
-nationalistic perspective that uses religious symbols and imagery to promote and sustain a nation state.
Religous Syncretism and Innovation includes

8
-new religous movements and the incorporation of new beliefs and systems borrowed from the traditions of other faiths.
Rituals are a

9
-regularly repeated, traditional, and carefully prescribed set of behaviors that symbolizes a value or belief.
Rituals have

10
-3 Characteristics

1.Provide solutions to problems by providing answers as to what to say and do and by providing a symbolic repository of values.
The 2nd Characteristic of a Ritual involves a

11
-ritual being rooted in experience so as to appear empirically verifiable.

-there are also stories in the culture about a rituals effectiveness, and if a ritual is ineffective, then the problem lies in the performance of the ritual, not the ritual itself.
Rituals also demarcate

12
-social boundaries and identify evil, identify the causes of problems, and identify which people are good which people are evil.

-Cultural styles determine the way good and evil people are dealt with. (Obliterate or Convert)
Another thing Rituals do is

13
-reinforce social processes

-ex. priests gain respect from mourners when conducting a funeral
A Conflict Symbol is a

14
-cultural object that serves as a carrier of dispute.
Ethnography is

15
-the close up observation and description of a community or social setting over an extended period of time.

-anthropologists favorite.
Statistical Analysis is the

16
-statistical manipulation of data to discern patterns and trends in attitudes and behavior.
Triangulation is a

17
-sophisticated sociological method that looks at a phenomenon from several methodological angles, such as Statistical Analysis, Ethnography, and Textual Analysis
Distinctions between the Sacred and the Profane come from

18
-Durkheim

-The Sacred involves things of ultimate concern that are often set apart or forbidden.
The Profane involves things that are

19
-ordinary or mundane.

-note that profanity involves using something extraordinary in an ordinary way. (eg. the name of a deity, sexual intercourse, or defecation.)
Hierophany involves

20
-encountering and experiencing the sacred.
Narritive Discourse and Analysis involves

21
-textual and/or ethnographic data used to explore patterns in the history, rhetoric, and linguistic frames used by religious communities.
Karl Marx viewed religion both as the

22
-sigh of the oppressed and as flowers on the chain of oppression to make suffering easier to bear.
Sigmund Freud viewed religion as a

23
-psychological projection, an illusion.
Religious beliefs are

24
-are often told in story form, or as myths and legends.
Beliefs often have

25
-contradictory elements brought together, have a singel narritive framework, and possess models of and models for reality.
The Cosmos

(Beliefs part 1)

26
-involves how and why it got here. Known as cosmogenies.
The Gods

(Beliefs part 2)

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-involves who they are and what they do.
Theophanies involves how

28
-people have encountered the sacred.
Theodicies involves why

29
-people experience suffering and death

eg. why do good things happen to bad people, why do bad things happen to good people, etc.
The Moral Community is the
-community that believes in certain morals such as not murdering people or having adulterous affairs
Durkheim's Definition of Religion

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-a set of beliefs and practices organized into a church.
Auguste Comte invented the

32
-term sociology.
Comted founded the

33
-positivist church, a church that resembles the rituals of catholicism, but took God out of the Church.
The Sacred Canopy is the

34
-idea that in a traditional culture, rituals help to organize the chaos in the universe.
The Religious Marketplace involves

35
-areas where you can find different religions.

-ex. internet, nations,
Elective Affinity is the

36
-affinity between ideas and interests.

-Different people think differently about ideas, ideologies, etc.
Text and Historical criticism

37
-involves using scientific approaches to try and prove scriptures.
Disciplinary Boundaries and Tradition

38
Anthropology---Ethnography
History--------textual analysis

Sociology------survey ethnography
Theophany involves

39
-the appearance of the sacred in visual form to a human being.

ex. Jesus, the burning bush
In Judaism and Islam, it is

40
-forbidden to represent God because it is impossible to represent God accurately.
Cosmogenies involve

41
-a set of theories about how and why the world was created.
The Cosmological Formula

42
-involves how the world was created.

-God creates the world out of nothing

-life emerges from a cosmic egg

-a pre-chaotic animal pulls mud up out of the water.
Anthropogenies are

43
-theories about the creation of humans and how they should think of themselves.
Rituals provide clues

44
on how to construct one's identity, how to make decisions, and how to understand the values of a culture.
When rituals become institutionalized

45
-they become stable patterns repeated over time that teach the young and remind everyone of their values.
Riane Eisler did research on

46
-cultures that have male and female gods.

-partnership societies typically had female gods

-patriarchal socities typically had warlike, hierarchical worship of gods.
Local Religions usually have

47
-direct connections between life and local existence, particularly animals, plants, and local ecology.
Cosmopolitan Religions usually

48
-pick elements of local culture as they diffuse.

-cosmopolitan religions encompass increasingly heterogenous populations.