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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What classical Daoism associated with?
Two men and texts
-Laozi (Laozi or Daodejing)
2. What are the dates of classical and religious Daoism?
Classical: 4th century B.C.E

Religious: 2nd century C.E.
3. According to classical Daoism, what are human beings?

What causes societal problems?
-Humans are natural beings
-Society is a corrupting influence
-Humans relationship with nature causes problems not relationship with each other
4. What are the two meanings of Dao in the Laozi?
1. Dao as the Way of nature

2. Dao as a Way of life
5. Why is it better to live a life of non-action (wuwei) according to classical Daoism?
-More natural and without resistance
-Harmony with nature leads to a good life
-Ambition is anti-classical Daoism because have a struggle
6. How can a river be analogous to wuwei?
If you resist current (i.e. go against it) you will not get where you want to go, but if your in harmony with nature, then current will help you

"Go with the flow"
7. What causes suffering according to classical Daoism?
-Lack of harmony with nature
-Resisting change inherent in nature (i.e. getting older)

Suffering = resistance to natural way
8. How is the Dao described by Laozi?
-Unnameable "thing" which precedes the universe
9. What are the two interdependent goals of classical Daoism?
1. For society, to live in peaceful, small communities ruled by sages who practice "non-action"

2. For individual, live the longest possible natural life by being in harmony with nature and minimizing conflict
10. How does Zhuangzi see the Dao?
The beginningless and endless process of transformation, not the ultimate origin of Heaven and Earth
11. What is the key concept in Zhuangzi's view of the natural world?

-The Dao is the sum total of all natural processes
-The principle of movement or change is inherent within them
12. How should we be when things change according to Zhuangzi?
Should not sorrow over the transience of things but rather delight in the their participation in the universal process of transformation
13. What is the perfected person or sage like in classical Daoism?
-Neither projects his mental categories onto the world

-Mind is like mirror in that it reflects just what is present at the moment
14. What is "fasting of the mind" in classical Daoism?
-Emptying the mind of preconceived categories and attending to what is actually present

-"sit and forget"
15. When is religious Daoism?
2nd century C.E.
16. How did religious Daoism come about?
-Predictions of Laozi returning to reign over an era of "Great Peace"
-Laozi transformed from revered sage to deity
-Laozi appeared in revelations to a man who later became the first Celestial Master
17. What became the core of Daoist religious practice?
-Meditation and ritual in order to enhance spiritual and physical health

-Symbols of this goal are immortal and perfected person
18. How were drugs used in religious Daoism?
-Internal alchemy and external alchemy
-Certain drugs could "detoxify" the body or purify the qi to enhance longevity
19. What is the difference between internal and external alchemy?
Internal alchemy is meditation and visualizations involving the enhancement of one's qi

External alchemy is the use of certain drugs and elixirs to purify or "detox" one's body which is conduces longevity
20. What are some differences between classical and religious Daoism?
-Laozi is revered sage

-Laozi is divinized by Celestial Masters
-Idea of immortality
-Body is essential to spiritual fulfillment (alchemy)

*Both imply that humans are fully "at home" in the natural world
21. How is sex a part of religious Daoism?
-Enhances qi
-In sexual fluids (esp semen) there is vital essence
-When aroused, qi increases in body which helps longevity
22. What are the two types of gods in Chinese religion?
1. Fu: spirits of charismatic people
-have temples or alter devoted to them

2. Shi: "officials" or bureaucratic gods
-usually temporary occupants of a position (local earth gods, city gods)
23. What are ghosts?
Spirit of a deceased person who has no family to conduct ancestor worship or whose death was irregular in some way

*spirits of unmarried women are typically prone to becoming ghosts ("spirit marriage")
24. Are ghosts happy?
-They are discontented souls or the neglected dead
-Both dangerous and pitiful
25. What is done for ghosts?
"Ghost-feeding Festival"

-large community feast is prepared for wandering ghosts and living beggars
26. How does one become an ancestor?
-Through ancestor ritual process consisting of:
1. Funeral rites
2. Mourning
3. Contrived rites
27. How are ancestors worshiped?
-Have alter table holding images and name plagues for both ancestors and gods
-Make ritual offerings
28. How are ancestors and gods similar?
-A family alter table holds both ancestors and gods
-Little distinction is made between them in the worship ritual
-Both are appealed to for protection
-Neither groups is omnipotent or totally benevolent
29. How are ancestors and gods different?
-Gods have more numinous power than ancestors and can influence a community wider than just a single family

-Ancestors are only worshiped by a single family, while gods are worshiped by a community
30. How are gods, ancestors, and ghosts different in terms of yang and ying?
Gods and ancestors are both yang

Ghosts are yin and always cause trouble
31. What three factors affect local religion in China?
1. Stability of population

2. Government policy

3. Money
32. How does stability of population affect local religion in China?
-More local religion in rural area than urban area
-Many ritual events require the mobilization of the entire community to a degree
-This is only possible if the population is well defined and not nomadic
-Also in urban area have continious flow of people in and out as well as the destruction of many temples
33. How does government policy affect local religion in China?
-The government believes local religion is backward superstition
-They allow religion as long as it does not disrupt public order or interfere with the state
-Religious Affairs Bureaus can issue local regulations on the control of religion
-Repress activities that challenge political orthodoxy
34. What are some examples of government policy affecting local religion.
1. Festivals are permitted as long as they don't become too expensive (i.e. can't pay taxes)
-limit money allowed on festivals

2. Shamans are allowed as long as they don't make too much money and become powerful
35. How does money affect local religion in China?
In poor villages it is hard to throw festivals because they can be expensive (may not occur or at very low level)

Also in regards to funeral rites, more money is spent by wealthy families and thus can buy relatives way out of Hell (show status by $ spent)
36. How should we live according to Confucianism?
Live in social harmony

-achieve through ren (humaness), li (ritual), and junzi (superior person)
-also need a good leader
37. How should we live according to Daoism?
Live in harmony with nature
38. How should we live according the Buddhism?
Middle Path

-have enough to sustain but don't over indulge
39. What doctrines are associated with Pure Land Buddhism?
-Based on three sutras that focus on Buddha Amitabha
40. Who's Mitabha?
-A Buddha
-Presides over a heavenly paradise call the Pure Land
-Will reborn people into this land (it's not nirvana-life w/o suffering)
41. What do Pure Land Buddhists believe?
-Present cycles will go through three cycles
1. The period of the Correct Buddha
2. Period of pseudo Dharma
3. Period of the End of Dharma
42. What is the basic practice of Pure Land Buddhists?
-Chanting the name of Amitabha Buddha
-This chanting is called nianfo
-In Chinese, Nanwu Amituofo
43. What is another name for Chan Buddhism?
-"Meditation School"

-Zen (Chinese pronunciation for Chan)
44. What is the use of texts in Chan Buddhism?
-Enlightenment cannot be achieved solely by studying texts b/c it is an intuitive (not intellectual) experience

-"Mind-to-mind transmission" that cannot be captured by words
45. How is Chan Buddhism practiced?
-Overcome thoughts about your self and get rid of the thoughts keeping you in samsara

-"Just sitting": let thoughts float away so mind is clear
46. What is a koan? Who uses it?
-A riddle that cannot be solved through analytical/rational though
47. What are five key themes in Chinese religion?
1. Constant Change and transformations
2. Harmony in Family
3. Unity of Heaven and Earth
4. Non-exclusive
5. Powers exist in the Universe
48. What is an example of constant change?
-no pure, ideal category
-categories flow between one another
-They flow into one another
49. What is Yin-Yang?
Yin: feminine, dark, winter season

Yang: masculine, bright/warm, summer
50. What is an example powers in the universe?
-Gods, souls (ancestors/ghosts)
51. How is harmony in the family seen?
-Especially in Confucianism and popular religion

-Ritual rite/ancestor worship
52. How is there unity of Heaven and Earth?
-Linkage maintained by rulers between the divine and human realms in Conf./Daoism

-Offer sacrifices
-Bilateral influence
53. How is non-exclusive?
-Not purely Daoist or Confucian

-Can combine elements, seen during funeral rites
54. How have death and afterlife been understood in China?
-Soul goes to hell where is judged by a bureaucracy
-Soul can be saved by living relatives (i.e. burn spirit money and "bribe" gods)
-Soul wants to go to "Western Paradise" (Pure Land)
55. Who's souls are most in danger?
-Women have a harder time passing through to Pure Land
-They go to a pool of blood b/c they gave birth (pollution)
-Children can relieve mother by drinking some of the blood

*unmarried women will have spirit wedding so someone can take on ancestral rites
56. What are three events in twentieth-century China?
1949: Communist party takes over

1966-1976: Cultural Revolution

1979: China opens doors to West; restrictions on religion were relaxed and temples were rehabilitated
57. Describe religion during the Communist party and cultural revolution?
Communist party: saw religion as backwards/something of past and suppressed it

Cultural Revolution: destruction of all religion (progress is too slow)
-temples burned
-kids should take over was new idea
-Confucianism was attacked the most b/c it was assoc w/ "old china"
58. What is the history of Christianity in China?
-7th century enters China
-stays until 845 when got rid of all foreign religions
-845-13th century little to no Christianity
-Matter Rici (1582)
-Rites Controversy (1643-1724)
-Hong Xuguan (mid 19th century)
59. What was Matte Rici's role?
-Studied Confucian classics and tried to explain Christianity
-Showed Christianity was harmony with Confucianism
-Translated Christian terms
-Said ancestral veneration wasn't in conflict w/ Christianity b/c not religious
60. Describe the Tai Ping Rebellion?
-Militant group that took on Christianity and was powerful for a while
-Believe in mediaism and that trinity is not separate
-Leader is part of divine family
61. Who is Hong Xuguan?
-Became leader of vast majority of China
-Lineage of Jesus Christ (younger bro of Jesus)
-Lost support eventually due to bad trade relations and letting court have too many perks
62. What is Falun Gong?
-Presents self as form of exercise (not religion)
-Open body to external energy
-Stretch to open your energy channels
-Form of exercise that's based on supernatural/cosmo elements

*rapid growth b/c free participation
63. What does Falun Gong emphasize? What are the 3 values?
-Emphasizes not just use of qi energy to promote health but also spiritual meditation
-3 values emphasized
1. truthfulness
2. compassion
3. forbearance (patience)
64. Why has Falun Gong been suppressed in China?
-Government view as superstitious, evil cult
-It was the only group that resorted to surrounding media offices with protesters
-Transformed from healing sect to political organization challenging state legitimacy
65. What direct act really caused the government to dislike Falun Gong?
April 1999, 10,000 protesters staged a silent protest at the official state compound where leaders resided
66. What really worried the officials? What was their response?
-Disconcerted by ability to amass such a large group and that middle-aged/elderly were protesters

-Anti-FLG campaign were arrested key figures, banned all practices (publicly), and destroyed all FLG propaganda
67. What is qiqong?
-Deep breathing exercises, meditation, and healing practices
-Use and transmit qi in a way that is conducive to health
68. What was the initial take on it?
-Promoted by state and medical pracitioners (less costly)
-Promoted as a form of science in 50's
-qi was seen as a materialistic entity that was a source of energy
69. How did this view change?
In late 1980's scientists could not replicate the existence of qi nor that qi masters could heal
70. What also made the government nervous about qiqonq?
-Qi masters were charismatic and had gained great attention/respect/money

-Government accused them of corruption and supersition
71. Why did the government support it when it was view scientific?
-It validated Chinese religious culture

-Made Chinese scientists ground breakers of something important to both science and health
72. Why do Japanese say they are not religious?
-Japanese are hesitant to "committing" to belief
-They associated "belief" and "religion" with Christianity
-They say they are not religious b/c they are not in the Christian sense and that is how they view religion
73. How do they see what they do?
-These are customs, not religion
-They find truths through practice not belief and it is belief that constitutes religion in the view
74. If it is all custom and not religion how come it falls under religious study?
-These customs take place within a context about which supernatural forces come into play
75. What are three rites of passages in Japan and what do they tell us about religion in Japan?
1. Birth (born Shinto)

2. Marriage (Christian b/c aesthetically pleasing)

3. Death (Buddhist)
76. When are people in Japan religious?
-Annual Festivals
-Rites of passages
-Times of stress
-New ventures (before ground breaking of building or long trip)
-Dates of deaths (memoralization)
77. What are major themes in Japanese religion?
-Focus on this world, this life
-Unseen forces both good and bad
78. What are matsuri?
3 Parts
1. Welcome spirit
2. Entertain it
3. Send it aways
79. What are the functions of matsuri?
1. Social cohesion: everyone participates, social norms are relaxed
2. Social protest: all injustices can come out (take retribution)--can be dangerous
3. Renewal: positive maintainance of relationship with kami that will benefit the community
80. Why can matsuri be dangerous?
Have drunken behavior and idea that matsuri is only for two days (time limitation) making social protest very possible
81. What are the unseen forces that Japanese believe in?
1. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas (good)
2. Kami (good and bad)
3. Ancestors (mostly good)
4. Unsettled spirits (bad)
5. Pollution (bad)
6. Karma (good and bad)
7. Unlucky days/years
8. Words
82. What are five different sources of power in Japanese religion?
-Buddhist icons
-Natural objects
-Words (text themselves)
-Location of miracles
83. How can you access good powers?
-Memorial rites (honor good powers/appease bad ones)
-Individual prayers
84. How can you avoid dangerous forces?
-Purification (exorcism): purify car to avoid someone from crashing into you
-Ritual sending away of spirits
85. How can kami be good and bad?
-Treat kindly -> good
-Treat unkindly -> bad
-Seen to live natural environment so have to appease kami before disturbing them
-People can become kami (powerful people)
86. How are ancestors mostly good?
-Protect you like parents

-Don't want to be forgotten
87. Why are unsettled spirits dangerous?
-No one can perform ancestral rites for them

-Unsettled spirits would be suicide victims, aborted fetus, and someone who dies before their time
88. What is pollution bad?
-Ritual pollution caused by death

-Going to funeral (throw salt over shoulder)
89. What are the four noble truths?
1. Life necessarily involves suffering (all life is inevitable sorrowful)
2. Cause of suffering is craving or desire
3. To eliminate suffering we must eliminate craving
4. Eliminate craving by following 8 fold path
90. Who is Amituo (Amida)?
The Buddha Amitabha whose vows are the basis for Pure Land Buddhism

-Chant name in Pure Land Buddhism
91. Who is Bodhidharma?
-First Chinese patriarch
-Brought the teaching of Chan Buddhism from India to China in 520
92. What is Chan?
One of the new schools of Chinese Buddhism
93. What is Dharma?
The teachings, truth, or law of the Buddha

-the earliest are the four noble truths
-doctrine of "no-self" (anatman)
94. What is another meaning of dharma?
-momentary states or elements of existence

-a person is a temporary collection of constantly changing dharmas
95. What is gongan (koan)?
A brief anecdote or statement by a former Chan master used as a focus of meditation

-riddle that can't be solved through analytical/rational though
96. Who is Guanyin (Kannon)?
The Bodhisattva of compassion in Mahayana Buddhism
-spend in part due to popularity of Lotus Sutra which has a chapter devoted to her
97. What is karma?
Buddhist theory of moral causality

-"action" or "deed"
-every intentional action or deed has a natural effect that will be experience by the doer of the deed at some later point and that the effect is determined by the moral character of the deed
-new person we become is conditioned by our unresolved karma
98. What is the Lotus sutra?
Central text of Tiantai Buddhism
99. What is Mahayana?
"Greater Vehicle"
The branch of Buddhism that spread throughout East Asia
100. Why was the branch called Mahayana?
Accommodated more people: didn't have to be a monk or nun to have a reasonable expectation of achieving nirvana
101. How does Mahayana differ from other Buddhisms?
-Based on new scriptures
-Chief model for enlightenment is the bodhisattva
-A theistic tradition (Buddhas are objects of worship)
-Developed new philosophical positions (emptiness, all beings have "inherent enlightenment")
102. What are bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism?
A being who has achieved enlightenment, but who vows to remain in samsara until all other sentient beings are enlightenment
103. What is nirvana?
The extinguishing of the karmic causation leading to rebirth in Buddhism

-freedom from rebirth
-ridding ourselves of karma so we can achieve liberation from samsara
104. What is nianfo (nenbutsu)?
The act of chanting the Buddha's name

-basic practice of Pure Land Buddhism
105. What is Pure Land Buddhism?
The celestial paradise into which followers of Pure Land Buddhism hope to be reborn
106. What is samsara?
The cycle of rebirth, death, and rebirth in Buddhism
107. Who is Sakyamuni?
Siddhartha Gautama, a spiritual teacher from ancient India and the historical founder of Buddhism

-born in 551 B.C.E in Napal
108. How did Buddha come to see suffering?
Saw a dead man, sick man, and holy man at marketplace and decided to be religious man
109. What is a sutra
Buddhist sacred text containing the discourse of the Buddha
110. What is Theravada?
"Way of the Elder"

The sole surviving school of several that flourished before the development of Mahayana
-it is the only "Hinayana" school that still survives
111. What is filial piety?
Respectful to parents and elders
-filial (xiao)
-a humane person is loving to others and filial
-in a humane government, ruler’s first responsibility is to ensure that his people can feed, clothe, and house themselves (“act as father and mother to the people”)
112. What are the two relationships that Confucius described?
Ruler/Minister (bureaucrat)

-son and minister should respect those above
-ruler and father should treat subordinate with love and kindness
113. What is a junzi?
"superior person"

-dedicated to becoming a humane person
-have a love of learning
-a ruler should strive to be a junzi
114. What are the three concepts Confucian talks about?
1. Ren (humaneness): to be fully human
2. Li (ritual): ritual in sense of practices and broader meaning in any situation
3. Junzi (superior person)
115. Who is Kongzi?
-born in 551 B.C.E
-in love with learning
-believed society could be transformed from top-down
-died thinking he was a failure but had good disciples who wrote down his sayings
116. What is the Lunyu?
-discussions and sayings -collections of Confucius’ sayings and conversations
-one of the four books of Confucianism
117. What is li?
-Ritual Property
-Attitude of reverence and respect and proper behavior while doing ritual practices
-Confucius extended to proper behavior in every situation
-Ritual has a moral basis (“ethical revolution”)
-Not just actions or motions
118. What is the mandate of heaven?
-Heaven decides who gets to rule
-Heaven has a moral will
-Fundamental principle of Confucian tradition (moral values at least in potential form are inherent in natural world)
119. Who is Mengzi?
-One of the four books in Confucianism
-More reliable than the Analects
-Two major interconnected themes
1. humane government (ren zheng)
2. human nature (ren xing)
120. What did Mencius believe in?
-People are naturally good (fundamentally good)
-The four beginnings are the innate source of morality
-They are only “seeds” or merely “feelings” or “dispositions” (qing)
-In cultivating our moral capacities we become fully human
-Mencius’ theory of the goodness of human nature is really a theory of potential goodness
121. What are the four beginnings?
-rightness (yi)
-humanness (ren)
-propriety (li)
-wisdom (zhi)
122. What is ren?
-“cardinal virtue”

-Confucian golden rule: what you would not want for yourself, do not do to others
123. What is the Yi-ching (I-ching)?
Book of Changes
-one of the five Confucian classics
-divination text
-was hexagram (look up in book to see what gods were saying)
124. What is dao?
The Way or Path

-the Way is conceived as the patterns and rhythms of nature

-human fulfillment lay in harmonizing our thinking and behavior with the Way
125. What is the Daodejing?
Daoist classic attributed to the mythical Laozi

"Classic of the Way and its Power"
126. What/Who is Laozi?
-Early Daoist Classic
-Named after Lao Tzu (the Old Master)
127. What is qi?
Psycho-physical-spiritual substance, the stuff of which all existing things are composed

128. What is wuwei?
"No Doing"

Absence of no deliberate, goal-directed action
129. What is the Zhuangzi?
The second major text in classical Daoism, named after its main author Zhuang Zhou (4th century B.C.E.)
130. What is hun?
the yang-soul
131. Who is Mazu?
Most popular deity in Taiwan, patron deity of seafaring people
132. What are oracle bones? What are they used for?
Bones used in divination
-ask gods questions and heat bones so would crack in certain way to read answer of god
-document divination
133. What is the po?
the yin soul
134. What is yin-yang?
"Dark-Light", passive-active, contracting-expanding

basic principle in Chinese thought (constant change)
135. Who was Hong Xiuquan?
Believed he was Jesus' brother
(lineage of Jesus Christ)
136. What is Falun gong (Falun dafa)?
Dharma Wheel Exercise

the eclectic qiqong practice founded by Li Hongzhi in 1992 and was banned in 1999
137. What is qiqong?
Manipulation or exercise of qi

*originally to benefit health (cure incurable disease/chronic illnesses)
138. What are the kami?
Deities (gods) of the Shinto tradition

-they are gods to Japan
-pray to them for benefit
-live in natural elements
-can be connected to powerful individuals
139. What is a kamidana?
-Altar for kami

-Household Shinto altar to guardian kami
140. What is a butsudan?
-Buddhist altar for ancestors

-Household altar dedicated to the ancestors who protect and watch over the family
141. What is a mikoshi?
-Portable shrine

-The kami is transferred into the mikoshi and carried around
142. How does the mikoshi a reminder of co-operation?
It requires men to pull together and in harmony, reminding the community of the necessity to work together for communal good and cooperate
143. Who is Inari
-Fox deity who first came into prominence as a protector of a Buddhist temple
-Become a powerful kami with heightened power of riyaku
-Became one of Japan's most widely venerated kami

-God of bussiness
144. What is obon?
August "festivals" for ancestors
-festival of the dead
-family comes together to venerate souls of its ancestors and visit family temples
145. What two times of the year produce religious activity in Japan?
New Year Period: visit shrines/temples to pray for good luck and happiness in the coming year

Obon (summer)

*neither one requires prior or fixed religious commitment (not even belief in existence or influence of spiritual beings to whom prayers are directed)
146. What is hatsumode?
-New Year visit to shrine or temple
-Has strong social and cultural nuances
-Customary to visit shrines at this time of the year
147. What is the shichigosan?
7-5-3 festival (in November)
-girls of three and seven and boys of five are taken to the shrine to be further placed under the protective blessings of the kami
-dress formally (overt display)--parents carry expensive cameras to capture