Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/110

Click to flip

110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Muslim
One who submits/one who commits himself to Islam
Islam means _____
Submission/Surrender
A conservative estimate gives Islam ______ billion followers
1.2
The revelations of Islam
Quran (Traditionally spelled Koran)
Hadith
A book of tradition written by the first generation of Muslims, and handed down orally and in writting
Two ways to get information on Muhammad's life and teachings
Hadith and Muslim biographies of the Phrophet, appearing during the first centuries of Muslim history
In the time of Muhammad, ______ actually populated much of the Western parts of Arabia
Jews - They had fled from enemies (Assyrian, Babylonian, Greeks, Romans)
Arabs and Jews worked together to...
Cultivate the oases in western Arabia
Jazirat al-'Arab
The Island of the Arabs - The Arabian Peninsula was called this
Bedouins
nomadic Arabs inhabiting desert areas of the Middle East and northern Africa
Al-Rub 'al-Khali
The Vacant Quarter. A portion of the peninsula made up of sand dunes, 1/3 of a million square miles. Even Bedouins did not go here
Describe South Arabia
+Rounded headed, hook-nosed
+Farmers.
+Spoke with Semitic dialiect and with Ethiopic words.
+Good land, so many wars/attackers. Recurrent depressions, etc
Describe North Arabia
+Long-headed
+Spoke Arabic
+Predatory and cooperative habits (1000s years in desert will give you that)
+Never occupied or conquered (Nothing of value)
Three sections of Arabia
N/S Arabia, Al-Rub al-Khali, Al-Hijaz
Al-Hijaz
Mountain range running parallel with the Red Sea.
Ta'if, Mecca, and Yathrib (AKA Medina) were trading posts for
Traders to make there way to Petra, whic hten went west and north to Egyps and Syria with spices
Jews and Christians had footholds in
The commerical centers of Arabia
Before Islam, many people worshiped ______________
Local gods or tribal gods
Allah, before Islam, was
Vaguely conceived as the creator, a far-off high god
The tribe that worshiped Allah, preislam was
Quraysh
Besides worshiped divinities, _____ were also give homage
Lesser spirits
Jinn
Where "genie" comes from. Spirits, capable of assuming human and animal form to help human efforts
Throughout Asia, ____ existed, as demonstarted by offerings of weapons and cloth hung on trees, and totemism
Animalism
Kaba
"the cube". Grey stone in Mecca, covered with a black cloth. Center of Islamic world. Point o pryer and pilgramage
Hajj, pre-islam, was intended
To worship the Kaba, which was believed to have fallen from the sky "In the days of Adam"
Who is believed to have built the Kaba
Abraham, while on a visit to his son, Ishmael
Zamzam
holy well. Traditionally, it is said that Muhammad's grandfather found the well after it was hidden by the Bani-Jurhum tribe.
Inhabited Mecca before Muhammad's tribe did
Bani-Jurhum
Muhammad's tribe was the ____
Quraysh
Less Pilgrimage
The tradition of immitating Hagar, and running from Zamzam to the Kaba hill
The Greater Pilgrimage
Includes the lesser pilgrimage, as well as an extensive tour of hills east of Mecca, and visits to celebrated places in Arabian history
Hubal
PreIslam, the Chief maile diety
PreIslam, the Kaba was a place for
The worship of dieties like al-Lat, al-Manat, and al-'Uzza as well as preislam's Allah
Mecca relied completely on commerce, because ____
Barren lands prevented growing of crops.
Mecca was _____, so many caravans traveled there
The only central town to Yemen and Syria
Arabia lost much wealth when the nations of ___ and ____ got into the spice trade
India and Somaliland
PreIslam, two tribes that fought for control of Mecca
Quraysh and Khuza
Muhammad's clan of the Quraysh tribe
Hashimite
Muhammad's birth
571 CE
With his parents dead, Muhammad was raised in poverty by his ___
Grandfather, and then his uncle
Abu Talib
Muhammad's uncle
It is believed that Muhammed got information on Christianity and Judaism from ____
Traveling caravans
Muslims believe that Muhammad did not write the Quran, instead ___ _did
An angel, sent to him
Khadiji
Muhammad's wife
Muhammad had ___ - ____ sons, and ___ daughters
2-3 sons (Both died in childbirth)
Four daughters
At 40 years, Muhammad visited a cave at the base of ____
Mt. Hira
The "Night of Power and Excellence"
Vision of the angel Gabriel visited M, at the cave.
Gabriel
Messenger of Allah
nabi
True prophet
rasul
apostle
Muhammad was rejected, not because of his beliefs, but because
We saw himself as a prophet, which was seen as a claim to leadership
Successor of Muhammad is called
Caliph
Although his gathers numbered in the 40s, the Quraysh tribe often
Attempted to break up meetings
In 620 CE, Muhammad moved to
Yathrib
The jouney to Yathrib is known as
The Hajra
Yathrib was changed to ___ in Muhammad's honor
Medina
The first Mosque was
At Muhammed's home
What year did Mecca assult Medina, after Muhammad provoked them?
627 CE - The Battle of the Ditch
When did Muhammed march on Mecca
630 CE
Muhammed died in
632 CE
Iman
Articles of faith
Ihsan
right conduct
'ibadat
religious duty
Statement of faith
There is no god but God and Muhammad is
Suras
Chapters within the Koran
Sunni Muslims believe/do not believe in predestination
Sunni Muslims believe that the Koran speaks to predestination
Abraham, Moses, and Jesus were all ____, according to Islam
Prophets
Quran
The undistored and final word to people from God
Uthmanic text
The texts created by committee appointed by Caliph Uthman. Four were made.
The Quran continues to provide guidence, even to
The legal system
Five Pillars of Islam
The Creed, Prayer, Almsgiving, Fasting during Ramadan, Pilgrimage
The Creed
Shahada
Prayer
Salat
Almsgiving
Zakat
Pilgrimage
Hajj
What creed to Muslims repeat?
This is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the prophet of Allah
What times do Muslims pray?
Dawn, midday, midafternoon, sunset, after dark, at bedtime
____ is a special day for prayer
Friday
_____% of their ______ is given in Zakat
2.5% of their accumulated wealth of a man or his family at the end of the year
After what point can one no longer eat during Ramadan?
When you can distinguish a light thread from a dark thread at sunup
Dhu-al-Hijja
The month that Muslims are to perform the Hajj.
circumambulation of the Kaba
Start at the Blakc stone and run three times fast and four times slowly around the building,. Stop each time to kiss the stone.
Caliph
Successor to Muhammad
Three major political parties of early Muslim history
The Companions, the legitimists, and the Ummayyads
The companions wanted
The Caliph to come from one of them
The Legitimists wanted
THe caliph to come from hereditary
The Ummayyads (Leaders of Muhammad's tribe) wanted
To decide, because they were Muhammad's tribe's leaders
Abu Bakr
Chosen by the Companions to be Caliph. Died one year later. Known for forcing tribes to rejoin coallition, and getting more to join
Umar's caliph dates
The second caliph. 634-644 CE
Uthman's caliph dates
The third caliph. 644-656 CE
Ali and Mu'awiya were battling for the caliph when
Ali was killed
In 661, Mu'awiya too the Caliphate, and ruled from
Damascus
Mu'awiya was chased from power to
Spain
Kharijites
"separatists" / "Secessionists" who believed that Islam needed to be purged of political games behind the scenes
Murjites
Disagreed with the Kharijites and said the only God can judge who is a true Muslim
Ijtihad
The exercise of reason in the forming of a judgment
Sunnis
People who did, and still do, resort to the Hadith, opininons of those in Mecca at the time of Muhammad, etc. to solve behavior
Shari'a
"The Way" - The law of Islam
Ulama
"The learned" - Trained Islamic teachers, theologians, and jurists
Four schools of the law
Hanifite, Malikite, Shafi'ite, Hanbalite
Hanifite
Followed in Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and by Muslims in India and central Asia
Malikite
Interpreted laws and rites in the light of the quran and the Hadith. When there was a difficulty, they leaned towards public opinion in Mecca. Followed in N Africa, Egypt, and eastern Arabia
Shafi'ite
Four sources of the law: words of God (Quran), deeds of Prophet, consensus of Muslim community, and analogy
Qiyas
Analogy
Hanbalite
Most conservative. Follows the strict Qurran
Mutazilites
Engaged in Kalam
Kalam
The use of logic in religious arguments
Sufis
"wool wearers" -
-
-
-
-