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48 Cards in this Set

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Edwin Hubble
examined nebular redshift, forming Hubble's law. His findings supported the view of the universe as much larger than previously predicted.
Redshift
increase in wavelength of light (more towards red size) as light moves away. frame transformation applied to visible light.
four basic forces
1. electromagnetic- light & charged particles
2. weak nuclear- radioactive decay
3. strong nuclear- binds protons & neutrons in nuclei
4. gravitational- long distance attraction btwn masses
Big Bang
common origin from which the universe expanded from 15 million years ago
steady-state theory
hydrogen atoms came into being slowly & continuously through infinite time & space
Steven Weinberg
famous for his contributions to the electroweak theory, theorizing that at "Big Bang high" temps, electromagnetic and weak nuke forces would unify, placing rapid expansion 10^-35 seconds after "the beginning" as the temp dropped
Gerald Schroeder
creation perceived as 6 days because of time dilation
Hugh Ross
uses superstring theory and claims that God operates on his own time dimension perpendicular to ours, giving him his powers
creatio ex nihlio
"creation out of nothing." not in genesis. formed later as response to rival creation theories suggesting polytheism
Einstein on contingency
contingency is a threat to the belief in rationality of the world, which is critical for science
anthropic principle
precise conditions under which universe were formed under unlikely w/o some religious influence. observer affects data.
Stephen Hawking
physicist specializing in quantum mechanics and the early universe who believes that the precise conditions under which the universe were formed would be unlikely w/o religious influence.
natural theology vs. theology of nature
natural theology- starts in science, used to understand God/religion.

theology of nature- starts w/ religion. religion modified in light of scientific discovery
Bohr model of the atom
electrons in orbitals- distinct energy states, application of quantum theory
Erwin Schrodinger
formulated wave equation of quantum theory- permits calculating probabilities of electron locations. importance: introduction of CHANCE

also famous for his cat paradox- since we cannot measure without interfering with the experiment, the reality for us as observers is both- determined by probability
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
when measuring the position and velocity of an electron, the measurement of one compromises the accurate measurement of the other
Jacques Monod
the presence of chance in nature supports materialism- no theistic approach. shows purposelessness of universe. everything reduced to laws of physics and chemistry and chance
classical realism
models are replicas of the world to help science visualize actual structures
instrumentalism
while theories and models are useful tools, they tell us NOTHING about reality
critical realism
theories are partial representations of our interactions with the world. the goal of science is to understand, not to control
complementarity
we can't talk about atomic systems in themselves- must talk in relation to an experimental system. Therefore both wave and particle theories are different ways of looking at same thing.

concept extended to say that science and religion are different ways of looking at the same thing- reality.
philosophical idealism
reality is essential mental in nature. modern physics has contributed to the growth of new versions.
John Wheeler
universe is "observer created." key feature = communication, not consciousness. Past has no meaning unless it's recorded into the present
Bell's theorem
No physical theory of local hidden variables can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics.

Supports idea of holism & critiques reductionism. Shows connections btwn non-connected elements
nonlocality
inability to treat widely separated systems independently. Very impressive form of holism
theory of special relativity
speed of light always measured to be the same. time and space are observer-dependent. only applies to intertial frames. light is fundamental way that time and space are connected. nothing can ever travel as fast as light.
Watson and Crick
discovered the structure of the DNA molecule
punctuated equilibrium
proposed by Gould. rapid periods of evolution and long stretches of no change.
Richard Dawkins
blind watchmaker. inefficient structures indicate no design. eye could've evolved in small steps. epistemological and ontological reductionist.
Michael Behe
inherent complexity of chemical systems couldn't have formed gradually- if 1 step out of place, chain is broken. hypothesis: info for designed systems programmed into all cells- remains dormant in some.
NOMA
non-overlapping magisteria. Stephen Jay Gould. Science and Religion respond to different authorities w/ different rules.
Ilya Prigogine
disorder at one level leads to order at a higher level. Many possible solutions but not unique prediction.

possibly involved in emergence of life. promotes looking at larger wholes.
3 main views of truth in Western Science
correspondence, coherence, pragmatic
6 types of religious experience
numinous, mystical, transformative, courage facing suffering & death, moral obligation, awe response to world
criteria for assessment of theories in science and religion:
agreement, coherence, scope, fertility
Thomas Kuhn's definition of a paradigm
set of conceptual/methodological presuppositions that implicitly define the kinds of questions asked, the types of explanations sought, and the assessment afterwards
Hans Kung
shows 5 major historical paradigms in Christianity using Kuhn's definition
Give some examples of Polkinghorne's metaquestions
why is science possible?
why is math so unreasonably effective?
why is the universe so special?
What's Polkinghorne's main point in his lecture?
science & religion shouldn't answer questions in each other's domains. they can learn much from each other. religion can answer metaquestions raised by science. science can show religion that good and evil are both needed in the world. eg. mutations and evolution
multiverse theory vs. precision of universe theory
multiverse- many types of universes possible, we don't understand them due to confines of our universe

precision of universe- only this combo of precise variables can produce life
According to Polkinghorne, what can science teach theology?
1. mechanical view of universe dead
2. built in uncertainty in the world
3. gives weight to some models of God over others
hypothetico-deductive view
data disagreement falsifies a theory. Karl Popper. criticism: no naked facts
Ninian Smart
aspects of BOTH numinous experience and mystical encounter in major western/eastern, just difference in proportion. they are complements
3 paradigm features
1. - data is paradigm-dependent, but some data can be agreed upon by rival paradigms
2. - 1 piece of data cannot falsify a paradigm, although data can cumulatively undermine confidence in a paradigm so that a new one replaces it
3. no rules for paradigm choice, but there are criteria for evaluation
Landon Gilkey
independence model
how does cosmology lead us to chance rather than purpose?
fine tuned constants, quantum fluctuation, pointlessness of universe
how did creation give rise to experimental science?
combined rationality and contingency
give examples of models of God. which does barbour like best?
designer, potter, architect, king
barbour likes- gardener, parent, spirit