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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of well is considered least likely to become contaminated?

A. Drilled
B. Bored
C. Driven
D. Dug
A. Drilled
Diatomaceous earth filters:

A. should be supplemented by a chlorination system.
B. should be integrated into a rapid sand filtration system.
C. can be used for a public water treatment system.
D. can be used in a public sewer treatment system.
A. Should be supplemented by a chlorination system
Microbial pollution travels only a short distance through:

A. sandstone.
B. smooth clay.
C. fissured rock.
D. limestone.
B. smooth clay.
What type of filter is recommended for use in small communities and rural places?

A. Diatomaceous earth
B. Granular
C. Cartridge
D. Slow sand
D. Slow sand
All of the following are used to disinfect water except:

A. Chlorine
B. Bromine
C. Fluorine
D. Iodine
C. Fluorine
Backsiphonage may be prevented by all of the following methods except:

A. Hydrostatic loops
B. Vacuum breakers
C. Air gap separation
D. Backpressure units
A. Hydrostatic loops
Which of the following is the least effective method for cadmium removal from drinking water?

A. Activated carbon
B. Iron coagulation
C. Lime softening
D. Ion exchange
A. Activated Carbon
Before a drinking water sample is taken the sampling tap should be clean free of leaks and flushed for how long?

A. 1 to 1-1/2 minutes
B. 2 to 3 minutes
C. 4 to 5 minutes
D. 6 to 7 minutes
B. 2 to 3 minutes
What contaminant has been associated with learning and cognitive disorders in children who drink contaminated water?

A. Manganese
B. Copper
C. Lead
D. Parathion
C. Lead
As you know from previous readings, the composition of soil is very important in the removal of both viruses and bacteria. Which of the following soil conditions is most favorable for removal of viruses?

a. sand over gravel
b. fine loamy sand over course sand and gravel
c. gravel over semi-porous clay
d. course sand and gravel over fine sand or clay
b. fine loamy sand over course sand and gravel.
Which of the following organisms are most resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions and indicate past or possibly intermittent pollution?

a. fecal streptococci
b. escherichia coli
c. aerobacter aerogenes
d. clostridium sporulates.
d. clostridium sporulates.
Which of the following wells is considered the most dependable source of water and is less likely to become contaminated?

a. driven well
b. bored well
c. drilled well
d. dug well.
c. drilled well
Which of the following is not considered a satisfactory solution to the problem of chemical contamination in well systems?

a. abandoning the well
b. boiling the water
c. connecting to a public water system
d. building a new, properly constructed, drilled well
b. boiling the water
Which of the following chemicals is most widely used to destroy microorganisms?

a. chlorine
b. copper sulfate
c. chloramines
d. hydrogen sulfate
a. chlorine
The control of corrosion in piping requires all of the following steps except:

a. development of protective coating inside pipes
b. the use of corrosion-resistant pipe materials or pipe coatings
c. an increase in water velocity
d. control of electrochemical action
c. an increase in water velocity
Which of the following is the best method of backflow control?

a. air gap separation
b. vacuum breaker
c. backflow preventer
d. barometric loops
a. air gap separation
Microscopic photosynthetic plants of the simplest forms, having neither roots, stems, nor leaves, that are associated with taste and odor, filter clogging, and other water problems are known as

a. yeasts
b. algae
c. protozoa
d. rotifers
b. algae
Control of infectious, intestinal diseases of humans requires

a. provisions of safe water supplies
b. proper waste disposal
c. personal hygiene
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Drinking water standards generally specify that water is safe provided that testing in a specified manner does not reveal more than an average of

a. 10 positive samples out of 100 samples taken
b. 50 coliform organisms per 100 ml
c. 1 positive sample out of 40 samples taken
d. 50 coliform organisms per 200 ml
c. 1 positive sample out of 40 samples taken
What does it mean when a body of water has a high Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU)?

a. it has low amounts of organic matter
b. it has no bacteria
c. no one is swimming at this time
d. it has high turbidity
d. it has high turbidity
The presence of which of the following is most easily identified by laboratory analysis in water contaminated by feces?

a. shigella dysenteriae
b. coliform
c. entamoeba histolytica
d. salmonella typhosa
b. coliform
Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) are most commonly used to

a. determine the type of pollution or contamination present in natural waters
b. estimate the amount of dissolved oxygen in surface waters
c. define the strength of waste waters
d. determine turbidity
d. determine turbidity
The safe distance between a well and a waste disposal system is dependent on

a. chemical processes
b. physical processes
c. biological processes
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
The Geophysical methods used to identify and investigate the extent and characteristics of ground water pollution include

a. geomagnetics
b. electromagnetics
c. electrical resistivity
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
What is the first step in evaluating the safety of a potential water system?

a. the frequency with which source and distribution system water samples are collected
b. a detailed sanitary survey of the water supply
c. the standard plate count for bacterial examination
d. the results of a bacterial chemical examination
b. a detailed sanitary survey of the water supply
What are examples of groundwater systems?

a. dug, bored, driven, and drilled wells, rock and sand or earth springs, and infiltration galleries
b. water located no deeper than 400 feet
c. direct municipal wastewater systems
d. lake, reservoir, stream, pond, river, and creek supplies
a. dug, bored, driven, and drilled wells, rock and sand or earth springs, and infiltration galleries
What causes water hardness?

a. high concentrations of iron
b. pond, creek, or other surface water
c. well-water supplies that are improperly constructed, protected, or located
d. dissolved calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, sulfates, and chlorides in groundwater
d. dissolved calcium and magnesium bicarbonates, sulfates, and chlorides in groundwater
What is desalination?

a. the detection of detergents in water by laboratory examination
b. the process of removing undesirable tastes and odors from domestic water supplies
c. one of the classifications for springs
d. the conversion of seawater or brackish water to fresh water
d. the conversion of seawater or brackish water to fresh water
The quality of surface water depends on

a. the use of chemicals for disinfection of drinking water
b. the elimination of coliform organisms
c. the watershed area drained, land use, location and sources of pollution, and the natural agencies of purification
d. the injecting of a chlorine solution into water at its source
c. the watershed area drained, land use, location and sources of pollution, and the natural agencies of purification
Which of the following is not commonly used for disinfection of water?

a. chlorine
b. silver nitrate
c. chlorine-ammonia compounds
d. ozone
b. silver nitrate
Hydropneumatic or pressure-tank water systems are suitable for

a. providing sufficient water to meet peak demands for domestic, commercial, and industrial purposes
b. small communities, housing developments, private homes and estates, camps, food service operations, and hotels
c. water storage requirements
d. helping to control watershed runoff
b. small communities, housing developments, private homes and estates, camps, food service operations, and hotels
The hydropneumatic tank typically contains __________ of its volume as water

a. 50 percent
b. 80 percent
c. 20 percent
d. does not contain water only compressed air
c. 20 percent
Water containing nitrates generally indicates

a. a nearby cesspool
b. evidence of previous pollution
c. a chemical leak
d. a nearby slaughterhouse
b. evidence of previous pollution
Diatomaceous earth filters

a. should be integrated into pressure-tank systems
b. can be used for public water supplies
c. should be augmented by chlorination
d. can be left unattended for long periods of time
c. should be augmented by chlorination
In a stratified reservoir, the best quality water is usually contained in the zone called

a. metalimnion
b. euphotic
c. epilimnion
d. hypolimnion
a. metalimnion
Hydrogen sulfide can be fatal at exposure of

a. 100 ppm
b. 150 ppm
c. 225 ppm
d. 300 ppm
d. 300 ppm
The most practical method for removing nitrates from water is

a. reverse osmosis
b. ion exchange
c. reverse osmosis
d. double reverse osmosis
b. ion exchange
Which of the following is not a practical method for removal of cadmium?

a. ion exchange
b. lime softening
c. reverse osmosis
d. iron coagulation
c. reverse osmosis
Backsiphonage may be prevented by all of the following methods except

a. barometric loop
b. vacuum breakers
c. air gap separation
d. backpressure units
a. barometric loop
The formula Q = AIR is used to determine

a. trihalomethane formation
b. amount of oxygen in quarry wastewater
c. rate of runoff in a watershed
d. area of education pipe in air lift pump
c. rate of runoff in a watershed
Of the following, which is not a variable to be considered when deciding upon a safe distance between a well and a sewage disposal system?

a. well construction. tightness of pump connection, depth of well casing and sealing of the annual space
b. the number of individuals utilizing the well
c. the volume, strength, type and dispersion of the polluted material
d. the soil structure and texture
b. the number of individuals utilizing the well
Microbial pollution travels only a short distance through

a. solution channels in limestone
b. fissured rock
c. dried-out, cracked clay
d. sandy loam or clay
d. sandy loam or clay
Typically, an abundant supply of groundwater may be yielded from

a. sedimentary rocks
b. molten rocks
c. igneous rocks
d. metamorphic rocks
a. sedimentary rocks
An example of a surface water supply would be

a. a well
b. a rock and sand spring
c. an earth spring
d. a reservoir
d. a reservoir
Which of the following is used to properly seal a drilled well to prevent contamination of the water supply?

a. epoxy
b. a mixture of sand and mud
c. grouting
d. a rubber seal with silicone adhesive
c. grouting
Which of the following compounds would not contribute to water hardness?

a. calcium sulfate
b. magnesium sulfate
c. calcium chloride
d. sodium chloride
d. sodium chloride
The quiescent settling of water such as would occur in a reservoir, lake or basin without the aid of chemicals is known as

a. plain sedimentation
b. coagulation
c. settling
d. flocculation
a. plain sedimentation
Which of the following is not a commonly accepted method or device to prevent backsiphonage?

a. vacuum breakers
b. cross-connections
c. air gap separation
d. back pressure units
b. cross-connections
Centrifugal pumps are of several types depending on the design of the

a. volute
b. shaft
c. impeller
d. mechanical seal
c. impeller
Which of the following disinfecting compounds can be used full strength for disinfection?

a. perchloron
b. calcium chloride
c. chlorinated lime
d. sodium hypochlorite
d. sodium hypochlorite
The type of filter that is recommended for use at small communities and rural places is the

a. rapid sand filter
b. pressure filter
c. slow sand filter
d. diatomaceous earth filter
c. slow sand filter
All of the following will generally vary directly with the quantity of water used for domestic purposes except

a. availability of water
b. habits of the people
c. cost of water
d. amount of minerals in the water
d. amount of minerals in the water
Groundwater in the soil travels up through a plant's root system and then comes out from the leaf structure as

a. transpiration
b. sublimation
c. evaporation
d. condensation
a. transpiration
The type of water that makes it difficult to produce suds or to rinse laundry, dishes or food equipment is

a. soft water
b. hard water
c. spring water
d. distilled water
b. hard water
A sanitary survey of a water system is necessary for what reason?

a. to determine the safety and the adequacy of the water supply
b. to determine how much iron is in a water supply
c. to determine what size pump is needed for the water system
d. to determine whether the water in the system is hard or soft
a. to determine the safety and the adequacy of the water supply
The sources of water supply are divided into which of the following major classifications?

a. spring water and well water
b. groundwater and surface water
c. rainwater and river water
d. demineralized water and lake water
b. groundwater and surface water
The conversion of seawater or brackish water to fresh water is called

a. decontamination
b. purification
c. desalination
d. dehydration
c. desalination
The gas causing the distinct "rotten egg' odor in many water sources is

a. hydrogen sulfide
b. carbon dioxide
c. chlorine gas
d. hydrogen carbonate
a. hydrogen sulfide
High concentrations of nitrates in drinking water are

a. detrimental to adults
b. considered safe to drink
c. the cause of a blood disease in teenagers
d. a possible cause of methemoglobinemia
d. a possible cause of methemoglobinemia
Turbidity of water will

a. interfere with proper disinfection
b. harbor viruses
c. cause tastes and odor
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
This substance is the first product of the decomposition of organic matter. Its presence in water usually indicates "fresh pollution" of sanitary significance. What is it?

a. ammonia
b. sugar
c. carbon dioxide
d. hydrogen sulfide
a. ammonia
Of the following elements in water treatment plant effluent, the presence of which is used as a measure of filtration efficiency?

a. copper
b. aluminum
c. zinc
d. lead
b. aluminum
One of the most common reasons for the contamination of wells drilled through rock, clay, or hardpan is

a. seepage of pollutants through soil
b. failure to seal well casings properly
c. porosity of the rock
d. use of inferior quality well casings
b. failure to seal well casings properly
Proper disinfection of water using chlorine depends on the concentration of chlorine plus which of the following?

a. temperature of the water
b. pH of the water
c. contact period
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Which of the following is used to control the growth of algae and protozoa?

a. addition of copper sulfate
b. aeration of the water
c. addition of nitrates
d. filtration
a. addition of copper sulfate
The gases frequently found in water that encourage corrosion are

a. methane and oxygen
b. oxygen and carbon dioxide
c. chlorine and carbon dioxide
d. methane and hydrogen sulfide
b. oxygen and carbon dioxide
In emergencies, small quantities of water can be disinfected by boiling or using

a. aluminum salts
b. tincture of iodine
c. salt tablets
d. direct exposure to sunlight for 22 hours
b. tincture of iodine
Which of the following is not used to disinfect water?

a. chlorine
b. bromine
c. fluorine
d. iodine
c. fluorine
Porosity is

a. a measure of the amount of water that can be held by a rock in its pores or voids, expressed as a percentage of the total volume
b. the rate of water at 60 degrees F, in gallons per day, through a cross section of 1 sq ft under a head of 1 ft/ft of water travel
c. the amount of water that will drain out of saturated rock or soil by gravity
d. the direct relationship between permeability and specific yield
a. a measure of the amount of water that can be held by a rock in its pores or voids, expressed as a percentage of the total volume
Of the following in water, the presence of which would indicate past or possibly intermittent pollution?

a. streptococcus fecalis
b. escherichia coli
c. clostridium perfringens
d. enterococci
c. clostridium perfringens
Which of the following is a measure of the amount of light scattered by particles suspended in a water test sample?

a. Fonnazin Turbidity Units (FTU)
b. Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU)
c. Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU)
d. Lincoln Turbidity Units (LNU)
b. Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU)
In testing for residual chlorine, which of the following determines free available chlorine with minimal interference from combined chlorine, iron, nitrates, and nitrites?

a. leuco crystal violet method
b. stabilized neutral orthotolidine (SNORT) method
c. DPD-colormetric method
d. DPD-titrimetric method
c. DPD-colormetric method
Granular activated carbon (GAC) filters are used to

a. treat water for soft drinks and bottled drinking water
b. remove taste and odor producing compounds
c. remove synthetic organic chemicals (suspected carcinogens)
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Ozone is effective against

a. amoebic cysts
b. bacteria and phenols
c. viruses
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Which of the following is (are) fundamental to the control of inorganic chemicals in drinking water?

a. sanitary survey
b. identification of the sources
c. determination of amounts of pollutants
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Often over 90% of sodium arsenate can be removed by

a. filtration
b. coagulation
c. ion exchange
d. all of the above
b. coagulation
Reduction of the level of fluorides in drinking water can be accomplished by

a. coagulation
b. lime softening
c. ion exchange
d. all of the above
d. all of the above (ion exchange is best method)
What are the fundamental steps involved in the control of organic chemicals in drinking water?

a. conduct sanitary surveys to identify sources, types, and amounts of pollutants
b. identify pollutants and select treatment methods
c. contact higher level regulatory authorities for consultation
d. upgrade water treatment plants
a. conduct sanitary surveys to identify sources, types, and amounts of pollutants
Trihalomethanes are synthetic organic chemicals primarily created

a. during the coagulation process
b. during the pre-chlorination process
c. during reverse osmosis
d. during the post-chlorination process
b. during the pre-chlorination process
The control of man-made pollutants must start with management of

a. industry
b. their manufacturers
c. the source
d. our lifestyles
d. our lifestyles
The Langelier index is used to determine the point of stability of

a. aluminum sulfate
b. calcium carbonate
c. water pH
d. HOCl
b. calcium carbonate
A hydraulic ram is used to elevate a quantity of water to a higher elevation. Rams are powered by

a. wind
b. electricity
c. water
d. heat
c. water
A well casing should be equipped with a vent and installed

a. with a sampling tap
b. in a pit to prevent freezing
c. with a turbine type pump
d. with concrete used as grout
d. with concrete used as grout
A centrifugal pump is limited to use where the lift of the water is not in excess of

a. 33.9 feet
b. 20 feet
c. 15 feet
d. 90 feet
c. 15 feet
The limitation of the lift capability of the centrifugal pump is based on

a. the weight of the atmosphere
b. the design of the impeller and volute
c. the efficiency of the motor
d. the effect of friction
a. the weight of the atmosphere
A jet pump will lift water a maximum of

a. 500 feet
b. 120 feet
c. 33.9 feet
d. 15 feet
b. 120 feet
Cross-connections are frequent causes of disease resulting from

a. backsiphonage of contaminated chemicals
b. backflow of biologically contaminated liquids
c. connection of the water supply to the sewer system
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Backflow of nonpotable materials into the potable water system may occur by

a. backpressure
b. backsiphonage
c. vacuum in the volume
d. both a and b
d. both a and b
The flushometer valve is typically protected by

a. a non-pressure-type vacuum breaker
b. a pressure-type vacuum breaker
c. a backflow preventer
d. a reduced pressure zone backflow preventer
a. a non-pressure-type vacuum breaker
Which of the following defines effective porosity or specific yield?

a. the amount of water that will drain out of saturated rock or soil by gravity
b. the rate of flow of water at 60 degrees F in gallons per day
c. the actual efficiency of a given water bearing formation
d. both a and b above
a. the amount of water that will drain out of saturated rock or soil by gravity
Which of the following statements is (are) true?

a. all surface water must be considered unsanitary unless given adequate treatment
b. all groundwater supplies may be considered safe as a potable water supply
c. when considering surface water as a water supply, the entire watershed must be surveyed
d. both a and c above
d. both a and c above
Which of the following statements is (are) true concerning the presence of coliform organisms in drinking water?

a. the drinking water may also be used as a varnish remover
b. the drinking water should be considered unsanitary
c. the drinking water does not contain toxic chemicals
d. all of the above
b. the drinking water should be considered unsanitary
At any given time, the amount of groundwater compared to the amount of all surface water (streams and lakes) is said to be estimated at

a. 5 times as much
b. 20 to 30 times as much
c. one-half as much
d. one-tenth as much
b. 20 to 30 times as much
Which of the following statements should not be a prime consideration in locating a groundwater supply?

a. the probable travel of pollution through the ground
b. the well construction practices and standards
c. the sanitary seal provided at the point where the pump lines pass out of the casing
d. the distance that the water will need to travel
d. the distance that the water will need to travel
It is recommended that a contaminated well be abandoned unless

a. all the sources of pollution can be found and removed
b. the contaminated stratum from which water is being extracted is effectively sealed off
c. the persons drinking the water show no adverse health effects
d. a and b above
d. a and b above
When using presettling reservoirs to eliminate heavy turbidity or pollution before treatment, what is the desirable retention time?

a. 8 hours
b. 1 week
c. 2 to 3 days
d. 1 month or longer
c. 2 to 3 days
Direct filtration can produce a good quality water at a lower cost provided that the water being treated is

a. low in suspended matter and turbidity
b. low in color, coliform organisms, and plankton
c. free of paper fiber
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
If sufficient amounts of activated carbon in the powdered form are used, practically all tastes and odors are removed from water by

a. absorption
b. polymerization
c. adsorption
d. oxidation
c. adsorption
When considering water storage requirements, which of the following is not considered a recommended practice?

a. the water storage should equal not less than half of the daily consumption
b. the retention time for the stored water should not be over 8 hours
c. at least half of the stored water should be in elevated tanks
d. capacity should equal the maximum daily usage plus fire requirements
b. the retention time for the stored water should not be over 8 hours
It has been estimated that waterborne disease worldwide accounts for in excess of

a. 250 million illnesses per year
b. 20 million illnesses per year
c. 150 million illnesses per year
d. 400 million illnesses per year
a. 250 million illnesses per year
Residential cesspool and septic tank soil absorption systems discharge

a. 400 billion gallons of sewage into the ground each year
b. 800 billion gallons of sewage into the ground each year
c. 800 million gallons of sewage into the ground each year
d. 2 billion gallons of sewage into the ground each year
a. 400 billion gallons of sewage into the ground each year
In a test conducted in North Carolina by the PHS in sandy soil, sewage organisms traveled

a. only 10 feet
b. 450 feet
c. in excess of 200 feet
d. 1,200 feet
c. in excess of 200 feet
Leaching from a garbage dump has been found to pollute wells

a. 2,000 feet away
b. 1,400 feet away
c. 100 feet away
d. 50 feet away
a. 2,000 feet away
Hardness in drinking water is desirable at levels of

a. 80 to 150 mg/l
b. 50 to 80 mg/l
c. 0 to 50 mg/l
d. 600 to 800 mg/l
b. 50 to 80 mg/l
Alkalinity of water is desirable at levels of

a. 0 to 30 mg/l
b. 0 to 500 mg/l
c. 30 to 100 mg/l
d. 0 to 5 mg/l
c. 30 to 100 mg/l
Domestic community water system pumps should be of such capacity as to deliver the average daily water demanded to the storage tank in

a. 4 to 8 hours
b. 14 to 18 hours
c. 6 to 12 hours
d. 18 to 24 hours
c. 6 to 12 hours
In distillation, sea water is heated to the boiling point and then into steam, usually under pressure, at a starting temperature of

a. 278 degrees F
b. 260 degrees F
c. 250 degrees F
d. 258 degrees F
c. 250 degrees F
Barium is a muscle stimulant and in large quantities may be harmful to the nervous system and heart. The fatal dose is

a. 150 to 250 mg
b. 550 to 600 mg
c. 400 to 475 mg
d. 800 to 1000 mg
b. 550 to 600 mg
The amount of color in water should be less than

a. 5 color units
b. 10 color units
c. 20 color units
d. 15 color units
d. 15 color units