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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the reharmonization technique of simple substitution?
Substitution of chords having a similar function
When employing simple substitution, the one thing that stays the same is
harmonic function
What 3 characteristics do tonic- function chords share?
1. They do not contain the 4th scale degree
2. Little sense of forward motion.
3. Almost always found at phrase endings of popular & standard tunes.
A chord which has little forward motion would possess which function?
Tonic
The seven diatonic 7th chords are grouped into 3 families, each family having its own _______________.
function
Which diatonic 7th chords have tonic functions?
IMaj7 III-7 VI-7
What common trait makes all tonic chords sound stable?
None of them contain the 4th degree of the scale, the tendency tone.
What is meant by chord "function"?
Tendency of a chord to move or remain stable within a musical phrase.
The 4th degree of the major scale is known as a _____________ ________.
tendency tone
Why is the 4th degree of a major scale known as a tendency tone?
Because it tends to lead to the 3rd degree of the scale when played over a IMaj7
Chords having a *moderate* tendency to move ahead within a phrase have which function?
Subdominant
What is the common characteristic shared by subdominant function chords?
They all contain the 4th degree of the scale.
Chord family associated with "restful" function.
Tonic
Which three chords make up the subdominant chord family?
II-7, IVMaj7 and V7sus4
Chord family assiciated with "moving" function.
Dominant
How can the V7sus4 be included in the subdominant chord family?
It uses the 4th of the chord, rather than the 3rd, in combination with the 7th, thereby eliminating the tritone. Chords containing a tritone belong to the dominant chord family.
Name the 3 harmonic functions of chords.
Tonic - Subdominant - Dominant
What does "the melody/harmony relationship of a third" mean?
The melody note (top note, or lead) of the chord functions as the 3rd of the chord.
Chords in this family have the strongest sense of forward motion.
Dominant
Name 3 characteristics of dominant function chords.
1. They usually contain a tritone.
2. They sound unresolved.
3. They have a strong tendency toward resolution.
What element accounts for the dominant chord's strong sense of forward motion?
The presence of the tritone
These chord types almost always *precede* phrase endings in popular & standard tunes.
Dominant
Which 3 chord types make up the dominant chord family?
V7, VII-7(b5), and V7sus4
How can the V7sus4 be included in the dominant chord family even though it lacks a tritone interval?
V7sus4 still has a dominant function when it resolves directly to the IMaj7.
What common characteristic makes the V7 and VII-7(b5) belong to the dominant chord family?
They each contain the tritone interval.
Dominant family chords most often resolve to what other family of chords?
Tonic
Most common location for dominant function chords in pop and standard tunes.
just before the phrase endings.
M/HR stands for ______ ______ _______________.
melody/harmony relationship
Explain what's meant by melody/harmony relationship...
The intervals created between the melody note and the notes of its supporting chord.
Generally, why are minor 9th/2nd intervals avoided in M/HRs?
Because they create a dissonance strong enough to destroy the basic function of the chord.
How should one check for the presence of minor 9th intervals in a reharmonization?
Ensure that b9 is not created between the melody note and any note of the supporting chord.
What is the exception to avoiding b9 intervals as an unwanted M/HR?
The minor 9th interval formed from the 3rd to the b9 of a dom7(b9) chord.
Another expression for "in the melody" is:
In the lead
Give any example(s) of a b9 M/HR.
F melody note harmonized by an A-7--
m9 interval formed between the 5th of the chord and the melody.

F melody note harmonized by an E-7--
m9 interval formed between the root of the chord and the melody.
What's the unwanted M/HR in a dominant 13th chord?
m9 interval formed between the 3rd and the 11th
Four reasons why a tritone M/HR should be avoided on minor 7th chords?
1. If used cadentially on II-7, tritone should be reserved for V7.
2. Makes it sound oddly dominant
3. Destroys chord's original function
4. Awkward sounding in a simple diatonic context
If the 13 is in the lead of a min7 chord, between which two chord tones is the tritone M/HR formed?
Between the 3rd and 13th
Another name for a tritone M/HR.
#4/#11 M/HR
Two M/HRs to avoid as the lead with minor 7th chords?
13 and b13
In simple substitution, a more effective reharmonization of a II-7 chord with the 13th in the lead would be:
Switch to IVMaj7. Given the same melody note, it forms a #11 M/HR.
Two common M/HR clashes to avoid in simple substitutions...
1. Unwanted b9 intervals
2. Tritone M/HRs (a/k/a #4/#11) on minor 7th chords
Increasing the harmonic rhythm means to _____________.
Increase the number of chords per bar.
Where are successful target chords usually located?
The last or next-to-the-last chords of a phrase
Explain what "diatonic approach" means.
To approach chords by using other chords in the same key.
Reharmonization technique that keeps a tune or phrase largely in a single key...
Diatonic approach technique
How did jazz and pop arrangers use the diatonic approach technique?
They often harmonized a series of quarter notes that lead to a target chord.
What is a cadence?
the movement from chord to chord at important phrase locations
In which musical styles is the diatonic approach technique mainly found?
mainstream Country; Pop; Folk
Two styles of music which use a quicker harmonic rhythm?
Jazz standards and bebop
Chords belonging to the same key are called...
Diatonic chords
A harmonic destination is also known as a...
target chord
What is the name given to the chord immediately preceding the target chord?
approach chord
To have an approach, there must be a ...
destination
Another way to think of a cadence is...
as a node of musical energy that leads to a resting point in the musical phrase.
Cadences carry ________.
momentum
What is the purpose of a diatonic approach reharmonization technique?
To introduce a more active harmonic rhythm and some harmonic variety w/o losing the tonal color of the original phrase.
Two styles of music which would use a slower harmonic rhythm...
modal
contemporary pop
bVIIMaj7 works well as a substitute for what other chord in a diatonic approach technique?
VII-7(b5), so long as there's not a unison M/HR
Which 2 types of cadences play a significant role in the diatonic approach technique?
Stong & weak cadences
Is there a limit to the number of shared pitches that define a strong cadence?
no more than two shared pitches
A weak cadence would be exemplified by chords whose roots are separated by what intervals?
roots a diatonic 3rd or diatonic 6th apart
What characteristic generally defines a strong cadence?
few (not more than 2) common tones shared between the approach and target chords
What is the correlation between number of shared common tones and root motion?
Chords a 3rd or 6th apart have the most common tones. Chords not a 3rd or 6th apart have fewer common tones.
Which 2 factors influence the choice of the diatonic approach chord into the target?
1. MH/R
2. Root motion of approach chord into target.
More often than not, which type of cadence is used to approach a target chord in the diatonic approach technique?
Strong cadence
In a diatonic approach, what is the requirement of the melodic lead of the approach chord?
they must be chord tones---1,3,5 or 7 in order to retain a diatonic sound.
In terms of the number of common tones, what characterizes a weak (or gentle) cadence?
The approach and target chords having 3 or more notes in common.
What is it about a weak cadence that creates only a subtle change?
The greater number of common tones between the approach and target chords makes them more similar than different.
Which diatonic chords share the most common tones?
diatonic chords a third or sixth apart
What characterizes a deceptive cadence?
movement of V7 to a chord other than I
Summarize the steps in a diatonic approach technique.
1. Choose target and approach chord.
2. Note the M/HR of approach chord.
3. Working backwards from cadential approach chord, harmonize each melody note with a diatonic chord having the same M/HR.
What is the downside of a strict adherence to the diatonic approach?
Possibly winding up with a hyperactive harmonic rhythm
Name the one nondiatonic chord that can be used in the diatonic approach technique?
bVIIMaj7
Why can bVIIMaj7 be considered as a choice in a diatonic approach technique?
bVIIMaj7 is borrowed from I Dorian, a modal, but parallel, key to I Major.
What are the disadvantages of using 9,11, or 13 in the lead?
1. might encounter unwanted M/HRs (b9 or #11 intervals) more frequently
2. progression might become nondiatonic
3. chromaticism will undermine diatonic texture.
4. might not work well in mainstream pop style.
In order to avoid a hyperactive harmonic rhythm, how are mixed-rhythm melodies harmonized?
melodies are harmonized only on rhythmic downbeats
Why must there be contrast to produce a cadence?
If there are too many common tones between the approach and target chords, they will be practically the same. Movement from one to next will be ineffective and will not provide momentum.
What is an Extended Dominant Seventh Chord Progression?
Series of dominant 7th chords that move forward using downward root motion of a perfect 5th or a minor 2nd.
Give exmaples of both versions of an Extended Dominant Seventh Chord Progression.
C7 - F7 - Bb7 - Eb7 - Ab7, etc.

and/or

C7 - B7 - Bb7 - A7 - Ab7, etc.
What does EDSPC abbreviate?
Extended Dominant Seventh Chord Progression
If an EDS is used to harmonize the same melodic situation as a diatonic approach technique would be, what are two differences in the result?
1. EDS moves out of original key quickly.
2. The sound is very patterned.