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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 phases of healing process
1. inflammation
2. fibroplastic repair
3. maturation remodeling
deficiency of tissues receiving oxygen
macroscopic characteristics of inflammatory response phase
increased temperature
responses of inflammatory phase
1. leukocytes, phagoctic cells, and exudate are delivered to injured tissue for the localization and removal of injury by-products
2. blood clot and fibrous tissue growth
3. blood flow slows
chemical mediators of inflammatory response
1. histamine- vasodilation, increased cell permeability
2. leukotaxin- margination, increased cell permeability
3. necrosin- phagocytic activity
Clot Formation
blood vessel spasm-platelet plug formation-clotting mechanism-prothrombin activator-(prothrombin)-thrombin-(fibrinogen)-fibrin-blood clot
responses of fibroplastic-repair stage
1. active scar formation
2. increased blood flow for nutrient delivery
3. granulation tissue composed of fibroblasts, collagen and capillaries forms
4. collagen is deposited
responses of maturation-remodeling phase
realignment of collagen
firm scar present
wolff's law
bone and soft tissue will respond to physical demands placed upon them
controlled mobilization enhances
scar formation, revascularization, muscle regeneration and fiber reorientation, tensile properties - smrft
factors that impede healing
extent of injury, edema, hemorrhage, poor vascular supply, muscle spasm, atrophy, keloids and hypertrophic scars, infection, and health, age, and nutrition
4 types of connective tissue
1. fibrous- dense (tendon, ligaments) and loose (adipose)
2. cartilage- hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic
3.reticular CT- composed of collagen, lines organs
4. elastic CT- composed of elastic fibers, in bllod vesels, airways, and hollow organs
define: epithelial tissue, bone, and blood
1. covers internal and external surfaces to protect and form structure for other tissues; absorption and secretion
2. cancelllous (spongy) or cortical (solid) for support, movement, and protection
3. contains RBCs, WBCs, and platelets for nutrition, cleansing and physiology
extra-articular ligament sprain versus intra-articular ligament sprain
e-a: bleeding in subcutaneous space vs. i-a: bleeding within capsule
stress fracture: possible causes, signs/symptoms, tx
causes: overload due to muscle contraction, altered stress distribution due to muscle fatigue, changes in suface, and rhythmic repetitive stress vibrations
s/s: focal tenderness and pain, pain w/ activity, pn becomes more constant and more intense, not on x-ray until callus formation
tx: removal from activity for 2 weeks
healing of bone
1. fibrous collagen network serves as framework for chondroblasts
2. cartilage infiltrates callus
3. osteoblasts form cancellous and trabeulae
-callus crystalizes
4. osteoclasts resorb bone fragments and clean debris
healing of bone depends on:
type of injury and bone, severity, location, patient age and nutrition
define these types of cartilage damages: osteoarthritis, arthrosis, fibrillation, osteophytosis, and chondromalacia
osteoarthritis- inflammatory condition with secondary destruction
arthrosis-degenerative proces w/ cartilage destruction, bone remodeling, and secondary inflammation
fibrillation-degenerative process of cartilage assoc. w/ poor nutrition and disuse
osteophytosis-increasing surface area to decrease contact force
chondromalacia- non-progressive cartilage transformation with areas of irregulatiry and softening
cartiskeletral muscle's 4 traits
elasticity, extensibility, irritability, and contractility
muscle strains occur when? and where?
-when overstretched or forced to contract against too great a resistance
-muscle, tendon, musculotendinous junction, ad tendone-bone interface
healing of muscle
1.fibroblasts and ground substance produce a gel-like matrix leading to fibrosis and scarring
2.myoblastic cells cause myofibril regeneration
3.collagen matures
define: tendinitis, paratenonitis, tendinosis, chronic tendinitis, and tenosynovitis
tendinitis- inflammation of tendon
paratenonitis- inflammation of tendon outer layer, friction injury
tendinosis- degenerative tendon changes
chronic tend- tendon degeneration with no inflammatory cellular response
tenosynovitis- inflammation of and stick adhensions within the synovial tendon sheath
healing of tendon
collagen synthesis and scar tissue formation
cns nerve healing vs. pns
peripheral nerves can regenerate if injury does not impact cell body; cns nerves regenerate poorly due to lack of connective tissue support
goal of rehabiliation during each healing phase
1. pre-surgical phase: maintaining/increasing strenght, rom, cardio, nm control
2. acute injury phase: swelling management and pain control
3. repair phase: increase cardio, full ROM, restore/increase strength, nm control; modalilties use for pn and swl
4. remodeling phase: return to play: sport-specific skills, functional testing, heating modalities, and manual therapy
primary goals of healing process in sports medicine
1. positively influence inflammation and repair process
2. expedite recovery of function
3. minimize early effects of inflammatory process
4. prevent recurrence of injury
medications used during healing process
aspirin, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, naproxen sodium, ketoprofen (usually as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic); oral muscle relaxants