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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 elements of the system that regulates respiration?
1. Sensors
2. Central controller
3. Effectors
What are the 2 sensor types?
What do they do?
1. Chemoreceptors
2. Pulmonary receptors
-They detect changes required for respiratory adjustments.
What is the central controller? What does it do?
-It coordinates incoming sensory info and directs respiratory activity.
What are the effectors?
Respiratory muscles! (i.e., the diaphragm)
what do respiratory centers do?
stimulate and stop inspiration and expiration.
what are 2 inhibitory stimulators?
1. Pulmonary stretch receptors
2. other brain centers
What are 2 excitatory stimulators?
1. Chemoreceptors mainly
2. Pulmonary irritant receptors
what do respiratory centers do?
detect sensory stimuli from detectors and send the info to the medulla.
what does the medulla do?
analyze sensory info and respond by sending motor info down the spinal cord to alpha motor neurons and the diaphragm. increase
what do chemoreceptors detect specifically?
Increased CO2, H+,
and decreased O2.
How do pulmonary stretch receptors and chemoreceptors regulate breathing?
1. They detect decr. o2/incr. H+ and CO2.
2. Stimulate inspiration
3. Lungs inflate, stretches stretch receptors.
4. Stretch receptors send inhibitory signal to end inhalation. NOOOOOO!! they only prevent overinflation.
so what is the main purpose of pulmonary stretch receptors?
AS PROTECTION against overinflation. they do not stop inspiration.
if pulm. stretch receptors don't stop normal inspiration, what does?
How do CO2 and O2 regulate breathing?
Co2 levels are directly proptional to breathing rate,
O2 levels are inversely proportional to breathing rate.
As Po2 levels decrease from 100 mmHg, what happens to breathing?
it only increases at Po2 of 60; remember the PLATEAU of the curve.
What's the best way to hold your breath?
Take rapid deep breaths to blow of and decrease CO2 levels. When Co2's not around, breathing is not stimulated.
what detects changes in Po2, Pco2 and H+? where?
Peripheral - in arterial blood
Central - in the brain.
Chemoreceptors detect H+, but specifically where?
H+ in the BRAIN (CSF)
NOT H+ in the blood, b/c it cannot cross the BBB.
How do chemoreceptors detect H+?
when CO2 crosses the blood brain barrier, it forms HCO3- and H+, which stimulates them. What
What receptors do detect H+ in the blood?
PERIPHERAL chemoreceptors.
What are the 2 types of peripheral chemoreceptors?
-Carotid bodies
-Aortic bodies.
what changes do the peripheral chemoreceptors sense?
Changes in arterial blood - CO2, O2, and H+.
What are the 2 types of pulmonary receptors?
-Slow-adapting Stretch receptors
-Rapid-adptng Irritant receptors
In what lung tissue are stretch receptors?
in the smooth muscle of bronchioles.
What reflex is stimulated by stretch receptors?
the Hering-Breuer reflex
what is the Hering-Breuer reflex?
The stimulus to stop inspiring when the lungs inflate. but again, THIS IS NOT STOPPING NORMAL INSPIRATION. only a protective mechanism.
What 4 things do Irritant receptors respond to?
1. Injury
2. Inflammation
3. Touch of particles
4. Chemicals
What effects do irritant receptors elicit?
-complex effects like coughing, and general inspiratory stimulus.