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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the body's fluid compartments, how much in each?
ICF - in cells, 25 L
ECF - 3 L blood plasma, 12L in tissue interstitial fluid/lymph
What is the Osmolarity of ICF and ECF?

What about Sodium?
300 mOsm in both.
ECF is 150 mM Na+
How is the osmolarity of ECF regulated?
by regulating sodium levels by moving water btwn cells and ECF.
What happens when water moves from blood cells to the ECF?
it increases the blood volume, thus increasing blood pressure!
what is the normal daily water intake?
2300 mL intake
2300 mL output
how is water output broken down?
-1400 mL urine
-100 mL sweat
-100 mL feces
-700 mL insensible
what is the min/max urine you can output?
400 mL min in deserts
14000 mL max
When would a person be putting out 14000 mL urine?
when they have diabetes insipidus.
What is the major problem in Diabetes insipidus?
no ADH - lg volumes of dilute urine.
where is ADH made?
in the hypothalamus
What stimulates the release of ADH?
1. High ECF Osmolarity
2. Low blood volume
How is High ECF osmolarity detected? What is the response?
By osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus; the hypothalamus releases ADH which incr. H2O reabsorption.
How does Low blood volume stimulate ADH?
1. Atrium stretches less.
2. Atrium releases less ANP.
3. Granular cells release more Renin.
4. Renin stim. Angiotensin II.
5. More ADH is released, H2o Reabsorbed.
What are the 3 major effects of increased water reabsorption?
Increased body water, decreased ECF osmolarity and Increased blood volume.
What is micturition?
What are the 2 major muscles involved in micturition?
By what system is each innervated?
1. Detrusor muscle; Autonomic
2. Voluntary sphincter; motor.
What important receptors are involved in micturition?
Stretch receptors;
As bladder fills/streches, INHIBIT alpha motor neuron to volunt sphncter; STIMULATE detrusor to squeeze pee out.
Spcfly what type of autonom nerves innervate detrusor?
How do you prevent urination everytime stretch receptors stretch?
The nerves end info to the brain to direct the volunt sphincter whether to relax or not - can override the inhibition.
What stimulates the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone sytem to kick in?
How does body need to respond?
Low ECF, usually accompanied by low blood pressure.
-Response is to inrease Na reabsorption.
What are the steps in the Ren-ang-ald system?
1. Low ECF, BP
2. Stimulates RENIN release
3. Activates Angiotensin system.
A. General vasoconstriction, esp of renal arterioles.
5. a)Decreases filtration/Na loss.
b)increases Na reabsorptn, decreases Na excretion.
6. RESULT: incr. body sodium and ECF volume!
What stimulates Atrial natiuretic peptide?
INCREASED ECF, usually accomp by high bp.
-Response needs to decr. body sodium.
What are the steps in the ANP system?
1. High BP causes Atrial stretch
2. Heart releases ANP.
3. ANP decreases Renin release.
4. No renin = no vasoconstr.
5. GFR increases, more Na excreted, lowers ECF.
What is common to all of them: -ADH
-Angiotensin II
In a nutshell, what does ea. do?
-Angiotensin II
ADH: increase H2o reabsorption.
Aldost: incr Na reabsorption.
Angio2: decr Na excretion.
Renin: increases Angio2.
What does ANP do?
Thus causes MORE Na excretion to lower blood pressure/ECF.
What is the main
-Intracellular ion
-Extracellular ion
Extra = SODIUM Na+
How much/where is K+ reabsorbed?
90% is reabsorbed before reaching the collecting duct.
What regulates K+ reabsorption?
What 2 things happen when plasma potassium is increased?
1. Depolarization of Heart cells.
2. Depolarization of cells in the adrenal cortex.
what is the effect of depolarizing heart cells?
death - it's abnormal electrical activity.
what is the effect of depol. adrenal cortex cells?
1. Incr aldosterone release, incr Na/K pumps in collecting ducts; Increased K+ secretion and decreased plasma K+.
Which of the 2 responses to increased plasma K+ is more sensitive?
the aldosterone stimulation, which is good because it fixes the problem and you don't die.