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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many different types of cells are there?
200
Chromosomes are made up of 90% _______________ and 10% _________
euchromatin, heterochromatin
Is euchromatin active or inactive?
active
Is heterochromatin active or inactive?
inactive
Euchromatin is found in ______ domains while heterochromatin is ______
loop, compact
If a gene is present in euchromatin
a) It is active
b) It can be activated
c) A + B
c) It is active or it can be activated
If a gene is present in heterochromatin
a) It is active
b) It is inactive and cannot be activated
c) It is inactive but can be activated
b) It is inactive and cannot be activated
What is the position effect?
The expression of a gene can depend on the position of the gene.
Nucleosomes contain ______ proteins with a characteristic N-terminal _____ tail.
histone, histone
Which important amino acid modifications occur in nucleosomal histones?
Lysine acetylation and methylation are competing reactions.
Serine phosphorylated
Are histone modifications reversible?
Yes
What are the functions of:
a) H3.3
b) CENP-A
c) H2AX
d) H2AZ
e) macroH2A
a) Transcriptional activation
b) Centromere function and kinetochore assembly
c) DNA repair and recombination
d) Gene expression, chromosome segregation
e) Transcriptional repression, X-chromosome inactivation
What activity corresponds to the following modification?
1. Methylation of K at position 9
2. Methylation K at 4, Alkylation K at 9
3. Phosphorylation S at 10, Alkylation K at 14
4. Methylation K at 27
1. Heterochromatin formation, gene silencing
2. Gene expression
3. Gene expression
4. Silencing of Hox genes, X chromosome inactivation
What is the function of barrier proteins?
To stop the spreading of heterochromatin.
What are the 3 mechanisms by which barrier proteins work?
1. Nuclear-pore bound barrier
2. Tight binding barrier
3. Highly active histone-modifying enzymes
Where are the telomeres located?
At the end of the chromatin
Centromeres contain the specific histone H3 variant ______
CENP-A
The histone-H3 variant attract proteins forming the ________. _______ attach to this.
kinetochore, microtubules
What is SIR2?
A telomere specific protein
What does SIR2 do?
It is an NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase
When is SIR2 most active?
When NAD+ is in abundance -> lack of nutrition