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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is the ECF volume regulated?
Via Na excretion:
1) RAA
2) sympathetic NS
3) ANP
4) pressure natriuresis
How is osmolarity regulated?
Via water exretion:
1) ADH
What bodily change is associated w/ postive Na balance?
weight gain
What is EABV and what does it correspond to?
EABV = effective arterial blood volume
- usually corresponds to Pa and parallel changes in ECF volume
* congestive heart failure is a specific case where ECF is increased and EABV is decreased
What happens in renal artery stenosis?
decreased renal perfusion pressure due to stenosis - increase renin - increase AII - increase aldo - Na reabsorb - increase ECF - increase Pa (above normal - hypertention)
What happens with an aldosterone tumor?
increase aldo - increase Na reabsorb - increase ECF volume - increase Pa - decrease renin - decrease AII levels
What are the 4 actions of AII?
1) increase aldo
2) vasoconstriction
3) increase thirst
4) increase Na reabsorption in proximal tubule
What is the major Na regulating hormone?
aldosterone - it acts on the principal cells of the late distal tubule and collecting duct inducing synthesis of Na channels - increase Na reabsorb - increase ECF vol, increase BV, increase Pa
What are the 2 effects of the sympathetic NS in the kidney?
decrease in Pa detected via carotid sinus baroreceptors:

1) constriction of afferent arterioles
(decrease GFR, decrease filtration of Na))

2) increase Na reabsorption in proximal tubule
How do hyperkalemia and hypokalemia affect aldosterone secretion?
hyperkalemia - stimulates aldo
hypokalemia - inhibits aldo
What is the effect of prostaglandins on renin secretion?
stimulates renin
What is the effect of ANP on renin secretion?
inhibits renin
Where is ADH synthesized and where is it secreted?
made in anterior hypothalamus
secreted from posterior pituitary
What are the two stimuli for ADH secretion and which is more potent?
1) 1% increase in Posm
2) 10% decrease in blood volume (most powerful response - BP is protected above everything else!)
Are there any additonal stimuli for ADH other than blood volume and osmolarity?
yes -
pain, nausea, AII, hypoglycemia, nicotine, opiates
What are other inhibitors of ADH?
1) ethanol
2) ANP
What are ADH's main actions?
1) increase water permeability in principle cells (via AQP2 and V2 receptor/Gs protein pathway)
2) contraction of vascular smooth muscle (via V1 receptor/IP3 and Ca pathway)
3) increase action of 3-ion transporter
4) increase urea permeability of inner medullary coll duct