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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ulrich Zwingli
A Swiss Protestant Reformer during the 1520's-1530. His first hint of reform was exegetical preaching (instead of following the prayer book) at the Grossmunster Monastary. He believed strongly in following the commands of God, not the traditions of man. He had many of the same beliefs as Luther but disagreed on the Lord's Supper, as Zwingli believed it was mostly a memorial. Zwingli was killed during the Kappel Wars and so his reformation in Zurich was cut short.
Zurich Disputations
These were held (1520's)because Zwingli had let his printers violate a fast, which was church and town policy. The 2nd Disputation decided in favor of Zwingli and their decrees involved economic, political, theological, and social aspects. Some of their decrees were:
Clerical celebacy wasn't required
Pilgramages were outlawed
Papal authority was denied
Transubstantiation was denied
Marbourg Colloquy
Lutherans wanted doctrinal unity.
Between Luther and Melanchthon, and Zwingli.
Agreed on 14 points, but not Communion, although they denied transubstantiation.
Some say Luther believed in consubstantiation-- that Christ's body was somehow around the elements. Zwingli believed it was more of a memorial.
Some say Luther believed in this, as can be seen in the Marburg Colloquy of 1529.
He did not believe that Jesus' body was in the elements during Communion, but around or near them somehow.
Heinrich Bullinger
Zwingli's successor in the 1530's after Zwingli was killed in the Kappel Wars.
He was so close to Calvin in his views that he was eclipsed by him.
Schleitheim Confession
A general guide to the Anabaptist beliefs.
Some examples:
They believed infant baptistm was illigitimate and adults needed to be baptized-- that baptism comes after faith and before entrance into the church body.
They believed that not everyone in the visible church was in the invisible church. They did not try to reform the church like Luther, but restore it to it's original purity.
They thought the state was corrupt so they would have no involvement in it. They were also pacifists.
They were zealous missionaries.
They were very literal with the Bible.
Marty'r Synod
Hans Hut, a mysticist from Germany, predicted that Jesus would come back and that the Anabaptists needed to gather.
Christ doesn't return and they are executed.
Melchior Hoffman
An Anabaptist who believed in Docetism-- that Jesus wasn't really a human.
In 1533 he claimed that Strassburg was the New Jerusalem. That year he was arrested.
Jan Mattys
Anabaptist who (along with his prophet Jan of Leiden) claimed that Munster would be the New Jerusalem and it would happen in 1534.
Therefore there was a huge Anabaptist Reformation-- all books except the Bible were burned and there was no private property.
Mattys left Leiden in charge when forces tried to put the reformation down.
Menno Simmons
An Anabaptist who was not as extreme as others.
He was a former priest who started the Mennonites in the 16th century.
He was a docetist and pacifist.
He believed in Biblical simplicity.
Jacob Hutter
An Anabaptist who had many disputes with other Anabaptists.
He led his followers (Hutterites) to Moravia.
They considered themselves to be a brotherhood (Bruderhofe).
Nicholas Cop
Convocation speaker in 1533 at the University of Paris.
Said the church needed reform and believed in salvation by faith alone.
He was charged with heresy and he and John Calvin (his friend) fled from Paris.
Affair of the Placards
Placards attack the mass in writing.
After this incident Francis I thinks things are out of hand.
Because of this Calvin flees back to his home and resigns as benefice.
"Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Written by Calvin, it was the simplest summary of Christian doctrine/religion.
By 1600 there were 90 different editions.
Calvin wanted to produce something to be read by all, not just theologians.
twofold knowledge of God
As Creator and Redeemer.
Creator b/c this is obvious, but this knowledge of God is corrupted by sin.
Therefore people create idols or false deities, because they have a "business with" and desire for God.
Total Depravity: makes it impossible for humans to choose/want to choose God
Unconditional Election: God chooses people, and if there's a reason why, we can't know.
Limited Atonement: Christ died for all humanity but this actually only applies to the elect.
Irrisistible Grace: If you're elected you're safe-- you can't resist God's grace
Perseverance of the Saints: If you're elected you'll go to heaven.
Third use of the law
Luther had said the law in the Old Testament had only 2 uses: to show you how bad of a sinner you were and to control society. Calvin offered another use, in that it is important in achieving sanctification-- something he believed every Christian should strive for.
regulative principle
This is John Calvin (and also Anabaptists) way of looking at the Bible and worship. They believed that if a practive was not condoned in the Bible it should be avoided.
Calvin claimed you should not force anything not condoned onto someone else.
People must use their judgement here.
The Dukes of Savoy wanted to make Geneva a dukal city. Berne had become Protestant and wanted Geneva to follow suit so they sent William Farel in the 1530's.
William Farel
A propagandist preacher who was sent from Berne to Geneva in 1533 to help them become Protestant.
His reforms are adopted and when Calvin comes to Geneva Farel doesn't let him go.