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8 Cards in this Set

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shanghai communique
February 28th, 1972
Established US China relations, US acknowledged China's One-China policy (did not support it), agreed to remove military installations in Taiwan. Included wishes to expand the economic relationship between China and the US.
Another communique (7 years later) formally ended US recognition of the ROC as 'China'. Also Taiwanese/American relations continued after the communique.
reform period
1978 - Today
The Chinese economic reforms were supposed to modernize China into the 21st century. It was done through the idea of "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" and let by pragmatic Den Xiaoping. Den's most famous quote is "It doesn't matter if the cat is black or white, as long as it kills mice."
The first reforms in the early 1970s were the agricultural reforms. Gone were the days of communes and in came the idea of a "responsibility system", that is farmers rented land from the government but could keep the surplus of their production. Some farmers became very wealthy this way. Also, a new phenomenon started to arise in T.V.E.'s (Town Village Enterprises).
The government of China also started to deregulate various industries but is keeping firm control on some key natural resources such as gas and timber.
The effect of these reforms are not all peachy though. Many problems were created by these reforms. For example, the wealth gap between rural China and the cities are at an all time high. China went from a mostly egalitarian country to a most unequal one quite quickly. China also suffers problems from a 'floating population', that is migrant workers from the country side who come into the cities to seek work. It is claimed that these people have a detrimental effect on crime and general welfare of the cities.
special economics zones
Areas in China designated by the government to have special properties so that they may attract foreign investments. Areas include Fujian, Hainan, Shanghai, Liaoning, Shenzhen and Shantou
four modernizations
modernize agriculture, industry, national defense and science and technology.
regionalism
there is a lot of descrepancy from eastern china to western China.
consumer revolution
Because of the increased income, Chinese people have started consuming at an all time high. This leads to problems such pollution and other environmental issues.
Hu Yaobang
Premier of the People's Republic of China. Was for tolerancy from demonstrators. Ousted by Deng and other conservatives in the party for not handling the student protests correctly, forced to resign. Could be considered a liberal, his death caused a nationwide mourning.
student movement of 1989
better known as the Tiananmen Masscare by the west, it was a movement initialized by students and eventaully followed by people from all walks of life. The background for the movement is that students were dissatisfied with the government because of it's corruption and nepotism. The students sought political reforms ontop of economic ones. It was initially sparked by Hu Yaobang's death. Students wanted the PRC to change it's official line on him. Further demands were free media and other things common in western societies. This event is remembered because of the brutality of the governments reaction to the student protests, sending in thousands of PLA soliders and tanks. A most memorable picture is one of the "Tank man", an ordinary citizen that stoood firm in the tracks of four tanks.