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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the simplest type of asexual reproduction that occurs in bacteria
fission
production of an exact copy of an entire hydra occurs in what proceess?
budding
region of hte sperm that stores ATP for energy
neck
where sperm cells are stored
epidiymis
adds most fluid to semen, and a base to raise pH, and
prostate gland
a single immature egg held within a group of ovarian cells
follicle
process that occurs when a mature cell is not fertilized and is released along the uterine lining
menstration
a fertilized egg that is stil a single cell
zygote
first series of cell divisions without growth in size
cleavage
the hollow fluid-filled oball of cells that can implant in the uterus
blatocyst
middle layer of the cells in an early embryo
mesoderm
ectoderm that moves inside the early embryo and will grow
brain
what is the term homunculus associated with?
preformation
what does the infinite regress problems for the homunculus have to do with?
sperm cells in a homunculus would have tiny homunculii inside them
what does not accept the concept of change in living things
fixity of species
where did Hutton and Lyllel find fossils of sea creatures
along the seashore
WHo predicted that humans would someday overpopulate the earth due to geometric growth
Malthus
what is the type of selection when humand develop new dog breeding
artificial
What are examples of pure substances?
elements, compounds, graphite, carbon
What is not a pure substance?
solution
Water is a ____ and a _____.
molecule and compound
Sand is water is a what?
heterogeous mixture
What is salt known as in a salt solution?
the solute
List from smallest to greatest the types of particles found in a mixture
solution, colloid, suspension
What is a cell cytoplasm an example of?
colloid
The number of what determines an element's atomic number?
protons
What is an electron known as in modern theory?
an atomic particle with a negativ charge
Protons have a difference in what of an element that has the same number?
isotopes
When an atom gives away an electron it becomes an ion with what charge?
1
How many ions are found in an ion of chlorine?
18
What does the charge of sodium become when it becomes an ion?
1
How many covalent bonds form between 2 atoms of hydrogen?
1
Which type of bond occurs between water molecules?
hydrogen
When a substance releases hydroxide ions in solitions what is it defined as?
a base
What happens when an acid and a base combine in neutralization?
a salt and water forms
Is gluscose organic or non organic?
organic
What is the function of simple sugars?
to provid quick energy
What did Wohhler combine to produce urea?
two non organic substances
Through what process is a disaccride formed?
dehydration synthesis
How many hydrogen atoms are found in the disaccharide sucrose?
22
What is the process known as when warer is added to split a larder molecule apart?
hydrolysis
What is the process when an animal polysaccharide stores energy in our liver
glycogen
what is the process when a plant poly saccharide build a wall?
cellulose
What has less oxygen than sugars?
lipids
How many molecules are released in the synthesis of one fat molecule?
three
Compared to an unsaturated fat, a saturated fat has more what?
hydrogen
What are the building blocks of proteins known as?
amino acids
What letter is the refion of a protein's building block represented by?
R
How many types of protein building blocks are there?
20
A peptide bond forms between what two elements?
carbon-nitrogen
What is changed during a chemical reaction in the body?
substrate
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids known as?
nucleotides
At what temerature do enzymes work best?
98.6
At which temperature do enzymes denature?
140
What does adenine always pair up with in a nitrogen base of a DNA molecuel?
thymine
Who was the first scientist to oberve tree bark and name the little boxes he saw as cells?

Who was the botanist who stated that all plants are made from cells?
Schlieden
Who stated that sells only arsise from pre-existing cells of the same type?
Hooke
What is not found in all cells?
cell membrane
What do plants and animal cells both contain?
centrioles
What is characteristic to plant cells?
no cell membrane
What is the ratio surface area to the volume in a 3 cm cube?
1 to 1
What does a cell become as it becomes smaller?
less efficent in transporting substances
In a non dividing cell, which part of the cell nucleus prevenrs DNA from entering the cytoplasm?
cell wall
How many total chromosomes are found in a diploid human body cell nucleus?
46
Where is the most of the RNA that is used to make ribosomes found in?
nucleolus
What is the transport of water into and out of cells mostly controlled by ?
phospholidpids
Which molecules help hold the cell membrane together?
structural proteins
What are molecules that sense the envivornment around them known as?
receptor proteins
What is osmosis?
the movement of water through a membrane from high concentration to low concentration
When a cell that is 99% made of water and placed in fluid, osmosis makes water enter the cell until it bursts open? What is this known as?
hypotonic
What is the process of engulfing large food particles known as?
phagocytosis
wher are proteins that are produced on ribosomes found?
mitochondria
What are moelcules stored, modified,and packaged by?
the golgi aparatus
What are cell structures that contain enzymes to digest invading organisms?
ribosomes
What transfers food molecules to the atp?
mitochondria
What is mitosis?
the divison of the nucleus
What does a cell do in interphase?
carry out basic life needs
What structure disintegrates during the prophase?
nuclear envelope and nucleolus
What phase has the chromososme line up at the cell's equator ?
metaphase
What are the structures that hold sister chromatids to spindle fibers known as?
centromeres
In what phase do chromatids separate and move toward either pole of the cell?
anaphase
In what phase is the direct opposite of telophase seen in?
prophase
daughter cells are formed ducing a process known as what?
cytokinesis
How are plan cells unique compared to animal cells?
they have cell walls
Why did Mendel use pea plants in his experiments?
b/c they showed only 2 clear different forms of traits
What is a genotype found in Mendel's parent generation?
TT
In Mendel's pea plants what would a tall heterozygote genotype be?
Tt
What phenotype disappears in the F1 generation?
short
What genotype can appear in the F2 generation?
TT, Tt, tt
What would the ratio of tall to short palnts in the F2 generation?
"3:1"
When a heterozygous tall plant is crossed with a short plant, what fraction of their offspring should show the tall phenotype?
".5"
Two heterozygous plants are crossed, producing a total of 24 offspring. How many of the offspring should show the tall phenotype?
18
How many factors are there for each trait?
2
Due to segregation, a gamete from a homozygous dominant pea plant should have what genotype?
T
A test cross of a tall plant results in 4 offspring, all of which are tall. What was the genotype of the original Tall plant?
cannot tell
If two dihybrids are crossed, how many of their offspring should show the dominant form of the first trait, and the recessive form of the second trait?
"3/16"
If a tall dihybrid plant is crossed with a recessice plant, what fraction of their offspring should be short with yellow seeds?
"1/4"
Id a red flowered plant is crossed with a whit flowered plant and they show incomplete dominance, what fraction of their offspring should have pink flowers?
all
A man who has type o blood produces offspring with a type ab woman. What fraction of their offspring should be type A?
"1/2"
A man with type a blood and a woman with type b blood can have what blood type babies?
any blood type
What is the combination fo genes that form phenotypes known as?
polygenic inheritance
Where are sex-linked traits found?
in the x- chromosomes
If a normal man and a normal woman have a child, what are the chances of it being color blind?
"1/4"
Why does hemophelia rarely occur in daughters?
because it must be present in the x-chromosome of the father who must have hemophilia
What are genes found on the same chromosome known as?
linkage groups
What does crossing over in meiosis result in?
recombination
Who first discovered nuclein?
Meischer
In Griffith's experiment, which condition caused pneumonia in mice?
R-type and dead S-type together
What element was found in Hershey and Chase's experiment that found that viruses give their offspring only DNA?
phosphorous
For developing a model of DNA, who received a Nobel Prize?
Watson and Crick
Comlementary bases pair up in the center of a molecule of what?
DNA
Of one side of DNA contains cytosine, then what does the other side hold?
guanine
In base pairing, the bases contain a fixed amount of what?
hydrogen bonds
What is the formation of exact copies of DNA known as?
replication
If the base sequence of a side of DNA is CTCG, then what is the complementary strand?
GAGC
Who were the scientists who first stated the "one gene- one enzyme" hypothesis?
Beadle and Tatum
What is a change in the structure of a gene?
mutation
Where is DNA found in a non dividing cell?
nucleus
RNA in protein synthesis contains what?
the base uracil
What is the production of mRNA known as?
transcription
What is the 3-base section of mRNA that signals the placement of a particular amino acid called?
codons
What is the process of transfer RNA attacking the correct region of mRNA and puts the correct amino acid in place.
translation
What type of genotype does someone who has normal blood have?
homozygous dominant
What is someone who with the sickle cell genotype known as?
heterozygous
What sickle cell genotype is the best for survival in places where malaria is still common?
heterozygous
If two people with sickle cell trait have a child what is the chance that child will have sickle cell anemia?
25%
What will the result be if plasmodium enters a red blood cell of someone with the sickle cell trait?
the red blood cell will sickle, preventing plasmodium from reproducing
What would be a major problem living on the dark side of the moon?
the gases needed to for life would condense into liquids
what is the process of water changing to gas known as?
evaporation
what is the release of water vapor from a plant's leaves known as?
transpiration
what percentage of the earth is carbon dioxide?
0.03%
What process allows plants to change carbon dioxide into food molecules?
photsynthesis
what is the study of similar structures in related organisms known as?
homology
which structures do fish and humans have similar in early development?
gill slits
which organ allows apes to digest plant materials?
cecum
What is direct evidence of evolution?
DDT-resistant flies
what is not a part of Darwin's theory of evolution?
that traits acquired by parents are passed directly to offspring
What would Darwin say that explains why the present day horse is larger than its ancestors?
Larger horses survived better than shorter ones, so they had more offspring
What is the fact that individuals of species are not exactly alike known as?
variation
What two names did Linnaeus use when developing his binomial nomenclature?
genus, species
What is Felis leo in the animal's name?
genus
What language is used to name animals?
latin
What level of classification indicates the most ancient ancestry?
class
What is the order of leveld of classification of animals?
Kingdom
Phylum
class
order
family
genus
species
What are the names of singled cell organisms that have no nucleus?
monera
What kingdom do amboeba, euglena, and paramecium all belong to?
protista
What organism moves using the cilia?
paramecium
doubling a penny every day for a month is an example of what?
geometric growth
How old is the earth according to the fixity of species?
7,000 years