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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
recreation activities
travel, cultural entertainment, hobbies, social club, camping, hunting, fairs
motivations for recreation participation
1. relax
2. display hidden talent
3. express oneself
4. release aggression and tention
5. test oneself
Early Christian era
after rome, christians emphasized work
free time (idleness) is the great enemy of the soul
Middle Ages
rec. continued dispite disapprobal of church
knights : hunting and hawking
hunting: lofty pursuit
hunting prepared for war
dance, gambling
Games of Common People
village feast
throwing weights
archery required
nobility provided large celebrations
Renaissance (rebirth)
-revived interest in scholarship, philosophy, and art
-italy, france: painting, music, dance, and acting popular
-John Locke: play should be used to learn develops character in children
-Rousseau: French philosopher,
-children should be given activites to meet development , to stop anitsocial behavior
-spectator (sport fan)
-solitary (sitting in a park)
-strenous or demanding
-in past, recreation was constructive and highly moral
-dangerous (rock climbing)
-morally questionable (drinking, gambling)
Protestant Reformation
-protestant broke away from roman catholic church
-no gambling
-no dancing
-considered all devilish activities
-James 1 (1618) declared some sports lawful (keep the peace)
-growing interest in science (puritans rejected)
Development of Parks and Rec. Areas

Private Estate
-opened to the public
-lavish gardens and wooded trails
-parks were fashionable to be seen in
-racing, gambling, carrige ridings
-lower class
soccer, cricket, wrestling
Development of Parks and Rec. Areas

-upper class (arts and socialzing)
-working class (drinking on weekends)
Development of Parks and Rec. Areas

Colonial America
-strict religious groups prevent many recreation activities
-New England
either worked or prision
no bums
whipped or imprisoned for: gambling dancing
enforcement of sabbath laws
travel, recreation, and worked banned
Development of Parks and Rec. Areas

Southern Colonies
very similar to new england
plantation life created lavish celebrations
many activities were banned for the working and lower class
Development of Parks and Rec. Areas

Decline of Religious Controls
-play slowly became tolerated
-lottery started (early 1700's)
-sexual behavior
- bundling:engaged couples slept together seperated by a board
- sex followed by marriage, was a forgivable sin
Development of Parks and Rec. Areas

Parks & conservation in the colonies
-1626 (plymouth colony) cutting trees with out official consent prohibited
-great ponds act of 1641: set aside 2000 ponds, 10 acres or more for fishing and hunting
-pennsylvania law 1681: for every 5 acres of forest cut , 1 must be preserved
Leisure Defined
-latin word "licer" meaning to "premit"
-as permission to do as one pleases at ones own pace, to participate in activity of ones chore, and to abandon the activity at will
Three essential elements

1. Preceived Freedom
- participates at will and leave at will
2. Autotelic Activity
- activity engaged in for its own sake and not for external factor
3. Beneficial Outcome
- activity will yield some benefit
-anglo saxon :plega
-game or sport, skirmish or battle
-play is not serious
-Greeks, play was important to children, developed them
20th century concepts of play
1. self-expression theory

- need for self expression
- find outlets for energy, ablitity
- influence by factors, family and social background
Typologies of Play
French Sociologist (Roger Caillois)
Classified type of play
-agon-competitive games with equal chance of winning
-alea- games that contestant has little control
-mimicry- acceptance of illusion or imanginary universes
-ilink- consists of games in pursuit or vertigo or dizziness
Psychoanalysis of Play
Sigmund Freud (for Children)
- gain control and competence
-resolve conflicts in life
-play and dreams are therapeutic for kids
Play Defined
form of human activity or behavioral style that is self motivated and carried on for intrinsic (personal) rather then external purposes.
Meaning of Recreation
-recreation is the fusion between play and leisure
-latin word "recreatio" meaning that which refreshes or restores
Traditional views of Recreation
-activity-physical, mental, social
-art- crafts, creative, music
-voluntary or free of obligation
-internal motivation or desire for satisfaction
Is recreation voluntary
no..little league
Motives for Participation
-Different behaviors suggest motives
sensory stimulation
physical activity
Depth of Involvement
degree to which individual is deeply committed (sports and entertainnemnt)
Recreation Defined
-consists of human activities or experiences during leisure time
-usually voluntary for intrinsic (personal) purposes
-enjoyable but may include dree of discomfort
Relationships between play, recreation, and leisure
-play is more then activity, it is a form of behavior
-recreation includes many forms of play but includes traveling, reading, music
-leisure is doing what one pleases freely and can start and stop at will
Motivation, values, and constraints
activity is influenced by many factors
-education background
-physical and emotional health
-money status
Adult motivations
physical exercise
social contact
thrill seeking
enrich ones life
escape boredom
Children and sports
to have fun
to improve skills
stay in shape
do something they are good at
older adults
Other Motivational Areas

Social and Affiliation Drives
Other Motivational Areas

excitement and challenge
need for excitement and challange
Other Motivational Areas

hedonistic motivations
drugs and alcohol abuse
sexual behavior
Other Motivational Areas

nostalgia based motivations
recapture past
-attending camps
-rock concerts
-war reenactor
Personal Values of Rec. Involvement

Physical Views
healthy growth
fitness and endurance
develop physical skills
Personal Values of Rec. Involvement

control of obesity
activity helps control weight
no desks jobs
58 million wiegh more then 20% then they should
is increasing
Personal Values of Rec. Involvement

cardiovascular health
americans have more coronary attacks then any other nation
-high cholesterol
-high blood pressure
Personal Values of Rec. Involvement

Emotional Values
feeling of control
important to mental health
Personal Values of Rec. Involvement

relax and escape
physical activity, reading, daydreaming
escape ones own problem
Personal Values of Rec. Involvement

overcoming loneliness
social contact
-problems, alcoholism, suicide
Personal Values of Rec. Involvement

stress mangement
work off anger
work off frustration
entire body benefits from physcial activity
Social Values of Recreation

sport and social development
moral values
respect for authority
academic success
self reliance
disapline and leadership
Intellectual Values of recreation
play as learning
-postive mental growth
games and mental growth
-provide action based social relationships (role playing)
Spritual Value of Recreation
exhibit higher human values..
more values
respect for others
respect for environment
-trip to wilderness
-nature can have a powerful impact on well-being of person