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71 Cards in this Set

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Sound arrives at the ear in the form of periodic variations in atmospheric pressure called what?
Sound-pressure waves
Sound-pressure waves are making sound arrive at the the ear in the form of periodic variations in what?
Atmospheric Pressure
What is any device that changes one form of energy into another, corresponding form of energy?
Transducer
What is a Transducer?
Any device that changes one form of energy into another, corresponding form of energy.
What are the 7 waveform Characteristics?
Amplitude, Frequency, Velocity, Wavelength, Phase, Harmonic Content, Envelope.
What is the graphic representation of a sound-pressure level or voltage level as it moves through a medium over time?
A Waveform
What is the distance above or below the centerline of a waveform?
Amplitude
What is the measurement of either the maximum positive or negative signal level of the wave?
Peak Amplitude Value (Peak Value)
What is the total measurement of the positive and negative peak signal levels called?
Peak-to-Peak Value
What determines a meaningful average level of a waveform over time?
Root-mean-square value (rms)
What is the rate at which an acoustic generator, electrical signal, or vibrating mass repeats within a cycle of positive and negative amplitude called?
Frequency
What is one completed excursion of a wave called?
A Cycle
What is the charted output of an audio device called?
Frequency Response Curve
What is the time delay between two or more waveforms? (Measured in Degrees)
Phase
What is a term that describes one waveform's lead or lag in time with respect to another?
Phase Shift
What are partials which are higher than the fundamental frequency called?
Upper Partials/ Overtones
What are the overtone frequencies that are whole-number multiples of the fundamental frequency called?
Harmonics
What are the characteristic variations in level that occur in time over the duration of a played note called?
Envelope
What are the three sections of the envelope of an acoustic signal called?
Attack, Sustain, Decay
What word refers to the time taken for a sound to build up when a note is initially sounded?
Attack
What word describes the increases, decreases, and sustains in volume that occur after the initial attack has sounded?
Sustain
What word refers to a fade or reduction in level over time, once the note has stopped playing?
Decay
What are the three variables of Attack, Sustain, and Decay?
Initial Amplitude, Time Duration, Amplitude Variation
What is the unit for measuring sound-pressure level (SPL), signal level, and relative changes in signal level?
Decibel (dB)
What is the acoustic pressure that's built up within a defined atmospheric area?
Sound-Pressure Level (SPL)
The higher the SPL, the...
Louder the Sound
What can be thought of as the pressure behind electrons within a wire?
Voltage
What is usually a measure of wattage or current and can be thought of as the flow of electrons through a wire over time?
Power
Is a 1 dB change noticeable to most ears?
No
What will turning something up by 3 dB do?
double the signal's level (but won't increase the loudness as much as you might think)
What is the minimum sound pressure that produces the phenomenon of hearing in most people?
The Threshold of Hearing

(0.0002 MicroBar)
What is an SPL that causes pain in a listener 50 percent of the time?
(SPL of 118 dB)
Threshold of Feeling
What is the SPL that causes pain in a listener 50 percent of the time?

(SPL of 140 dB)
Threshold of Pain
What deals with how and why the brain interprets a particular sound stimulus in a certain way?
Psycho-Acoustics
What is it called when two tones that differ only slighty in frequency and have approximately the same amplitude produce an effect?
Beats or "Beating"
What is the result when two loud tones differ by more than 50 Hz?
Combination Tones
What is the phenomenon by which loud signals prevent the ear from hearing softer sounds called?
Masking
What is it called when the wave that travels from the source to the listener will follow the shortest path and arrive at the listener's ear first?
Direct Sound
What are waves that bounce off of surrounding surfaces in a room and must travel further to reach the listener?
Early Reflections
What is it called whenever room reflections continue to bounce around room boundaries and the randomly decaying set of sounds can often be heard after the source stops?
Reverberation
What device changes sound waves into electrical signals?
Microphone
Which type of mic operates by using electromagnetic induction to generate an output signal?
Dynamic Microphone
Which type of mic operates on an electrostatic principle?
Condenser Microphone
What does Q stand for?
The charge on a condenser mic
What type of directional pattern can pick up sounds 360 degrees around?
Omnidirectional Mic
What do you call a mic that only can pick up sound from both sides but not the top and bottom?
Bidirectional Mic
What are the 4 different types of directional mics? (excluding hypercardioid)
Omnidirectional, Cardioid, Supercardioid, Bidirectional
What is the measurement of a mic's output over the audible frequency range when driven by a constant, on-axis input signal?
Freqeuncy-Response Curve
What is the measure of how quickly a mic's diaphragm will react when it is hit by an acoustic wavefront called?
Transient Response
What does a mic's output characteristics refer to? (4 things)
Sensitivity, equivalent noise, overload characteristics, impedance, other output responses.
What is the output level (in volts) that a mic will produce called?
Sensitivity Rating
What can be viewed as the device's electrical self-noise?
Equivalent Noise Rating
What kind of line uses 3 wires to carry the audio signal?
Balanced
In a balanced line, what are the 3 wires labeled as?
1 = Cable shield
2 = Positive (hot)
3 = Negative (-) or Nuetral
What kind of lines do high-impedence mics and most line-level instruments us?
Unbalanced
After a condenser mic gets its power from the console, what else needs to happen?
Needs Phantom Power
How many volts does Phantom Power supply to a microphone?
+48V
To get a Natural, smooth tone quality you need a mic with a...
flat frequency response
To get a Bright, present tone quality you need a mic with a...
Rising frequency response
For extended lows you need a which mic type?
Dynamic or condnser with extended low-frequency response
Which mic type is best for extended highs? (detailed sound)
Condenser
Which mic type is best for increased "edge" or mid-range detail?
dynamic
What type of mic is used for extra ruggedness (2 types)?
Dynamic or Modern Ribbon/Condenser
What piece of equiptment gives us full control over volume, tone, blending, and spatial positioning for any or all signals that are applied to its inputs from microphones, electronic instruments, effects, devices, recording systems, and other audio devices?
Audio Production Console (the board)
What is the physical process of capturing live or sequenced instruments onto a medium called?
Recording
What is a seperate mix made for artists, procducer, and engineer to hear their instruments in their proper musical perspective?
Monitoring
What is adding instruments that aren't present during the original recording to the multitrack project called?
Overdubbing
What is the process of taking the final recordings and mastering them into a finished product called?
Mixdown
What serves as a pre-amp section to optimize the signal gain levels at the input of an I/O module before the signal is processed and routed?
Channel Input
What kind of trims are typically capable of boosting a signal over a range of +20 to +70 dB?
Mic Trims
What kind of trims can be varied in gain over a range of -15 to +45 dB?
Line Trims