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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abstract of title
The condensed history of a title to a particular parcel of real estate, consisting of a summary of the original grant and all subsequent conveyances and encumbrances affecting the property and a certification by the abstractor that the history is complete and accurate
acceleration clause
The clause in a mortgage or deed of trust that can be enforced to make the entire debt due immediately if the borrower defaults on an installment payment or other covenant.
Acquiring title to additions or improvements to real property as a result of the annexation or fixtures or the accretion of alluvial deposits along the banks of streams.
The increase or addition of land by the deposit of sand or soil washed up naturally from a river, lake, or sea.
accrued items
On a closing statement, items of expense that are incurred but not yet payable, such as interest on a mortgage loan or taxes on real property.
A formal declaration made before a duly authorized officer, usually a notary public, by a person who has signed a document.
A measure of land equal to 43,560 square feet, 4840, square yards, 4047 square meters, 160 square rods, or 0.4047 hectares
actual eviction
The legal process that results in the tenant's being physically removed from the leased premises
actual notice
Express information or fact; that which is known; direct knowledge
adjustable-rate mortgage(ARM)
A loan characterized by a fluctuating interest rate, usually one tied to a bank or savings and loan association cost-of-funds index.
adjusted basis
A new basis(or financial interested attributed by the IRS) created when a property is acquired by purchase. Cost plus value of improvement expenditures, minus depreciation
ad valorem tax
A tax levied according to value, generally used to refer to real estate tax. Also called the general tax
adverse possession
The actual, open, notorious, hostile, and continuous possession of another's land under a claim of title. Possession for a statutory period may be a means of acquiring title.
affidavit of title
A written statement, made under oath by a seller or grantor of real property and acknowledged by a notary public, in which the grantor identifies himself and indicates marital status and certifies that since the exam of the title, on the date of the contract no defects have occurred in the title, and certifies that he/she is in possession of the property(if applicable).
The relationship between a principal and an agent wherein the agent is authorized to represent the principal in certain transactions.
agency coupled with an interest
An agency relationship in which the agent is given an estate or interest in the subject of the agency(the property).
One who acts or has the power to act for another.
air lot
A designated airspace over a piece of land.
air rights
The right to use the open space above a property, usually allowing the surface to be used for another purpose.
The act of transferring property to another. May be voluntary, such as by gift or sale, or involuntary, as through eminent domain or adverse possession.
alienation clause
The clause in a mortgage or deed of trust that states that the balance of the secured debt becomes immediately due and payable at the lender's option if the property is sold by the borrower. In effect this clause prevents the borrower from assigning the debt without the lender's approval.
allodial system
A system of land ownership in which land is held free and clear of any rent or service due to the government; commonly contrasted to the feudal system. Land is held under this system in the U.S.
American Land Title Association(ALTA) policy
A title insurance policy that protects the interest in a collateral property of a mortgage lender who originates a new real estate loan.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Act addresses rights of individuals with disabilities in employment and public accomodations
amortized loan
A loan in which the principal as well as the interest is payable in monthly or other periodic installments over the term of the loan
Process of converting personal property into real property
annual percentage rate(APR)
The relationship of the total finance charges associated with a loan. This must be disclosed to borrowers by lenders under the Truth-in-Lending Act
The appraisal principle that holds that value can increase or decrease based on the expectation of some future benefit or detriment produced by the property.
antitrust laws
Laws designed to preserve the free enterprise of the open marketplace by making illegal certain private conspiracies and combinations formed to minimize competition. Most violations of these laws involve either price-fixing or allocation of customers or markets.
An estimate of the quantity, quality, or value of something. The process through which conclusions of property value are obtained; also refers to the report that sets forth the process of estimation and conclusion of value.
appraisal report
An opinion of market value on a property given to a lender or client with detailed and accurate information.
An independent person trained to provide an unbiased estimate of value.
An increase in the worth or value of a property due to economic or related causes, which may prove to be either temporary or permanent; opposite of depreciation.
A right, privilege, or improvement belonging to, and passing with, the land
appurtenant easement
An easement that is annexed to the ownership of one parcel and allows the owner the use of the neighbor's land.
A mineral once used in insulation and other materials that can cause respiratory diseases.
The combining of two or more adjoining lots into one larger tract to increase their total value.
The imposition of a tax, charge, or levy, usually according to established rates.
The transfer in writing of interest in a bond, mortgage, lease, or other instrument
assumption of mortgage
Acquiring title to property on which there is an existing mortgage and agreeing to be personally liable for the terms and conditions of the mortgage, including payments
The act of taking a person's property into legal custody by writ or other judicial order to hold it available for application to that person's debt to a creditor.
attorney's opinion of title
An abstract of title that an attorney has examined and has certified to be, in his or her opinion, and accurate statement of the facts concerning the property ownership.
automated underwriting
Computer systems that permit lenders to expedite the loan approval process and reduce lending costs.
automatic extension
A listing agreement clause stating that the agreement will continue automatically for a certain period of time after its expiration date. In many states, use of this clause is discouraged or prohibited.
The sudden tearing away of land, as by earthquake, flood, volcanic action, or the sudden change in the course of a stream.
The appraisal principle that states that the greatest value in a property will occur when the type and size of the improvements are proportional to each other as well as the land.
balloon payment
A final payment of a mortgage loan that is considerably larger than the required periodic payments because the loan amount was not fully amortized.
bargain and sale deed
A deed that carries with it no warranties against liens or other encumbrances but that does imply that the grantor has the right to convey title. The grantor may add warranties to the deed at his or her discretion
base line
The main imaginary line running east and west and crossing a principal meridian at a definite point, used by surveyors for reference in locating and describing land under the rectangular(government) survey system of legal description
The financial interest that the Internal Revenue Service attributes to an owner of an investment property for the purpose of determining annual depreciation and gain or loss on the sale of the asset.
A permanent reference mark or point established for use by surveyors in measuring differences in elevation.
1) The person for whom a trust operates or in whose behalf the income from a trust estate is drawn. 2) A lender in a deed of trust loan transaction.
bilateral contract
A contract by which all parties of the instrument are legally bound to act as prescribed.
An agreement that may accompany an earnest money deposit for the purchase of real property as evidence of the purchaser's good faith and intent to complete the transaction.
blanket loan
A mortgage covering more than one parcel of real estate, providing for each parcel's partial release from the mortgage lien upon repayment of a definite portion of the debt.
The illegal practice of inducing home-owners to sell their properties by making representations regarding the entry or prospective entry of persons of a particular race or national origin into the neighborhood.
blue-sky laws
Common name for those state and federal laws that regulate the registration and sale of investment securities.
Money or property given to make up any difference in value or equity between two properties in an exchange.
branch office
A secondary place of business apart from the principal or main office from which real estate business is conducted. Usually must be run by a licensed real estate broker working on behalf of the broker.
breach of contract
Violation of any terms or conditions in a contract without legal excuse; for example, failure to make a payment when it is due.
One who acts as an intermediary on behalf of others for a fee or commission.
The bringing together of parties interested in making a real estate transaction.
broker's price opinion
An opinion of real estate value commissioned by a bank or attorney and provided by a broker.
Defunct, derelict, or abandoned commercial or industrial sites; many have toxic wastes.
Brownfields Legislation
Provides federal funding to states and localities to clean up brownfields sites.
buffer zone
A strip of land, usually used as a park or designated for a similar use, separating land dedicated to one use from land dedicated to another use(e.g. residential from commercial)
building code
An ordinance that specifies minimum standards of construction for buildings to protect public safety and health.
building permit
Written governmental permission for the construction, alteration, or demolition of an improvement, showing compliance with building codes and zoning ordinances.
building-related illness(BRI)
An illness due to air quality problems, typically toxic substances or pathogens and is a clinically diagnosed condition. Symptoms include asthma, allergies, and hypersensitivity.
bulk transfer
see Uniform Commercial Code and add def.
bundle of legal rights
The concept of land ownership that includes ownership of all legal rights to the land - for example, possession, control within the law, and enjoyment.
A financing technique used to reduce the monthly payments for the first few years of a loan. Funds in the form of discount points are given to the lender by the builder or seller to lower the effective interest rate paid by the buyer, thus reducing the monthly payments for a set time.
buyer-agency agreement
A principal-agent relationship in which the broker is the agent for the buyer, with fiduciary responsibilities to the buyer.
buyer's agent
A residential real estate broker or salesperson who represents the prospective purchaser in a transaction.
buyer's broker
A residential real estate broker who represents prospective buyers exclusively.
capital gain
Profit earned from the sale of an asset.
A mathematical process for estimating the value of a property using a proper rate of return on the investment and the annual net operating income expected to be produced by the property. The formula is expressed as:
Income / Rate = Value.
capitalization rate
The rate of return a property will produce on the owner's investment.
cash flow
The net spendable income from an investment, determined by deducting all operating and fixed expenses from the gross income.
cash rent
In an agricultural lease, the amount of money given as rent to the landowner at the outset of the lease, as opposed to sharecropping.
caveat emptor
A Latin phrase meaning "Let the buyer beware"
certificate of reasonable value(CRV)
A form indicating the appraised value of a property being financed with a VA loan.
certificate of sale
The document generally given to the purchaser at a tax foreclosure sale. It does not convey title; normally it is an instrument certifying that the holder received title to the property after the redemption period passed and that the holder paid the property taxes for that interim period.
certificate of title
A statement of opinion on the status of the title to a parcel of real property based on an examination of specified public records.
chain of title
The succession of conveyances, from some accepted starting point, whereby the present holder of real property derives title.
The appraisal principle that holds that no physical or economic condition remains constant.
personal property - see
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Nontoxic, nonflammable chemicals containing atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, such as air conditioners and refrigerators. Safe in application but cause ozone depletion.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
An act that prohibits racial discrimination in the sale and rental of housing
The principal.
An event where promises made in a sales contract are fulfilled and mortgage loan funds(if any) are distributed to the buyer.
closing statement
A detailed cash accounting of a real estate transaction showing all cash received, all charges and credits made, and all cash paid out in the transaction.
cloud on title
Any document, claim, unreleased lien, or encumbrance that may impair the title to real property or make the title doubtful; usually revealed by a title search and removed by either a quitclaim deed or suit to quiet title.
The grouping of home sites within a subdivision on smaller lots than normal, with the remaining land used as common areas.
code of ethics
A written system of standards for ethical conduct.
A supplement or an addition to a will, executed with the same formalities as a will, that normally does not revoke the entire will.
coinsurance clause
A clause in insurance policies covering real property that requires the policyholder to maintain fire insurance coverage generally equal to at least 80 percent of the property's actual replacement cost.
The illegal act by a real estate broker of placing client or customer funds with personal funds. By law brokers are required to maintain a separate trust or escrow account for other parties' funds held temporarily by the broker.
Payment to a broker for services rendered, such as in the sale or purchase of real property; usually a percentage of the selling price of the property.
common elements
Parts of a property that are necessary or convenient to the existence,maintenance, and safety of a condominium or are normally in common use by all of the condominium residents. Each condominium owner has an undivided ownership interest in these.
common law
The body of law based on custom, usage, and court decisions.
community association management
Provides a team of property managers, accounting staff, office staff and property consultants to manage property.
community property
A system of property ownership based on the theory that each spouse has an equal interest in the property acquired by the efforts of either spouse during marriage. A hold over of Spanish law found dominantly in Western U.S. states; the system was unknown under English common law.