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7 Cards in this Set

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where do ROS come from?
mitochondria, NADPH oxidase, peroxidase, oxidase, antioxidants, redox cycling compounds, environmental toxins (smoke)
some redox compounds are necessary for...
cell signalling
MnSOD makes hydrogen peroxide from superoxide in the matrix. Why is this necessary?
a small amount of hydrogen peroxide is needed for cell signalling. Hydrogen peroxide can cross membranes while superoxide cannot.
What are some common antioxidants?
vitamins C and E, glutathione, beta carotene, and ubiquinone.
what are three damaging effects of ROS?
DNA damage, protein modification, and lipid peroxidation
What are three targets of ROS signalling, and what do these molecules do?
Hif1a: activated by ROS and stimulates angiogenesis in hypoxic conditions
protein phosphatases: ROS deactivate them
matrix metalloproteases: ROS activates them by oxidizing disulfide bond.
What are the functions of the three NO synthases?
NOS 1 (n) is for neuronal signalling
NOS 2 (i) is for killing bacteria
NOS 3 (e) is for vasodilation