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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
three levels of filtration
fenestrated capillary
-70,000 kDa (albumin 65,000)
-keeps blood cells in

basement membrane
-lamina rara interna (neg)
-lamina densa
-lamina rara externa (neg- b/c type IV collagen & hep sulphate)
(loses charge w/glycation)

normal renal bloodflow
600 ml/minute
normal clearance
120 ml/minute
(amount of filtered plasma at bowmans capsule)

99% is reabsorbed
osmotic pressure in BC
0 (shouldn't be any protein in there)
use for permeability constant
index of kidney health

Kf= GFR/ (Pgc-Pbc-oncPgc)
GFR affected by
blood pressure affects acute change

Kf affects chronic change
Kf affected by
hormones, disease
contraction of mesangial cells
Normal Starling Forces
Pgc = 45mmHg
Pbc = 10 mmHg
oncPgc = 19 mmHg
modification of filtration pressure
-contract afferents
-dilate afferents
-contract effs
-dilate effs
-dilate both
-obstruct urinary flow
-change protein concentration
contract afferents
decrease flow, decrease filtration
(sympathetic stim, AT II)
dilate afferents
increase pressure & GFR
constrict efferents
increase pressure & GFR
low levels of GFR
dilate efferents
decrease pressure & GFR
constrict afferents & efferents
decrease flow, no change hydrostatic, increase oncotic pressure, decrease GFR
change protein concentration affect on GFR
increase prot - decrease GFR
(& vice versa)
Calculate GFR
creatinine clearance

normal clearance of creatinine
male 92-110 ml/min

female 74-110 ml/min
normal creatinine levels
0.8 - 1.2 mg/dl
problem with creatinine clearance to calculate GFR
can be secreted into tubule

estimation of RBF
calculate RPF (renal plasma flow)
* RPF = [U]/[RA]
* (ignores [RV])

estimate RBF
* RBF = RPF/1-Hct
organic acid used to calculate RPF

not synthesized/metabolized
amount back to RV is minimal
metabolism of creatinine
creatine to phosphocreatine via creatine kinase

spontaneous to creatinine from either

byproduct of muscles
causes of decreased Kf
(permeability constant)

Renal dz, DM, HTN
causes of increased P (BC)
urinary tract obstruction
causes of increased glomerular oncotic pressure with decreased glomerular pressure
decreased renal blood flow
increased plasma protein conc
causes of decreased resistance at efferents & glomerular pressure
decreased AT II
causes of increased R (A) & decreased glomerular pressure
sympathetic stim
vasoconstrictor autocoids
causes of incrased GFR