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40 Cards in this Set

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Name 3 parvoviruses that can infect rats.
Kilham Rat Virus (RV) or (KRV); Toolan H-1 (H-1) Virus; and RPV (rat parvovirus) - Rodent parvovirus infections. LAS 96 46(4):370 Neonatal rats can be experimentally infected with MVM.
What are RV, H-3, X-14, L5, HB, SpRV, HER, HHP, KIRK?
Strains of KRV which contaminate rat tissue or rat-passaged biologic tumors
Both RV & H-1 virus are experimentally pathogenic in rats but only ________ has been associated with natural disease.
RV
T/F The rat is the only natural host for KRV & H-1.
True
KRV usually causes obvious clinical signs in the rat. T/F
False: usually subclinical
When rat pups infected in utero w/KRV what organ is primarily affected?
cerebellum (brain); also liver
When adults have acute KRV disease precipitated--what is/are the pathogenic process(s)?
KRV injures vascular walls causing coagulation disorders - hemorrhagic encephalopathy, cyanotic scrota, multifocal hemorrhage of the heart and lungs
T/F KRV can be transmitted vertically and horizontally.
True
T/F The viral capsid protein is highly conserved between rodent parvoviruses.
False - NS (nonspecific) primer is highly conserved, VP (viral capsid) enables differentiation. - Polymerase chain reaction for detection of rodent parvoviral contamination in cell lines and transplantable tumors. LAS 95 45(3):326
Persistent rat virus infection can occur in juvenile euthymic/ athymic rats.
Euthymic juvenile rats develop acute, self-limiting infection with rat virus (RV). RV infection of juvenile athymic rats was persistent for up to 12 weeks. T-cell deficiency facilitates persistent RV infection LAS 95 45(3):249
Rat virus is stable/not stable in the environment and is transmitted by fomites/aerosols.
Rat virus can remain infective after prolonged exposure to an ambient environment (5 wks) and infection is more readily transmitted by animal-to-animal contact or by fomites than by aerosolization of exhaled virus. LAS 95 45(2):140 H/O 60 days
Viruses of what common viral family were found to coomonly infect rats in Brazilian rodent facilities?
Coronaviridae (SDAV also KRV, H-1, and TMEV-GDVII) - Virus infection in rat and mouse colonies reared in Brazilian animal facilities. LAS 96 46(5):582
What 2 strains of Coronavirus are pathogenic for lab rats?
SDAV & RCV (Rat Coronavirus)
What Coronavirus of mice are rats susceptible to?
MHV
Common antigens are shared by RCV, SDAV & MHV. T/F
True
SDAV is very/not very contagious. When enzootic in a colony, only ________ get clinical disease since ________ are immune. Infection is acute/chronic with rats having/not having carrier state.
very; sucklings; adults; acute; not having carrier state
Maintenance of SDAV in a colony requires what?
continuous introduction of susceptible stock (weanlings or new rats) because no carrier state
Clinical signs of SDAV infection?
rhinitis, epiphora (red eyes), swollen salivary glands (not sublingual!), ocular lesions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal ulcers, etc.
What is another name for "red tears"? what is it?
chromodacryorrhea, porphyrin tinged ocular discharge from the Harderian glands.
What is a differential viral diagnosis for the swollen salivary glands?
Rat cytomegalovirus
Do rat coronaviruses use the same cellular receptors as MHV?
No MHV uses the MHV receptor (MHVR or Bgp1a) RCV-SDAV uses the viral S glycoprotein and RCV-P uses its hemagglutinin-esterase glycoprotein as well as by S LAS 96 46(2):159
T/F Sialodacryoadenitis virus and Sendai virus infections cause more severe respiratory tract lesions in LEW rats than in F344 rats.
True Vet Pathol 95 2(6):661
What coronavirus is responsible for neonatal mortality and estrus cycle aberrations in rats?
RCV, Reproductive abnormalities associated with a coronavirus infection in rats. LAS 96 46(1):129
Sendai Virus is a ________ virus of the ________ Family.
Paramyxovirus, Paramyxoviridae same group as human Parainfluenza I virus
Sendai is highly/lowly contagious. Sendai induces a chronic/acute respiratory infection with no/a carrier state.
highly; acute; no carrier state
Mild nonsuppurative pulmonary lesions in the rat can be seen w/Sendai, ________, ________, and to a lesser extent ________.
PVM, RCV, SDAV
Squamous metaplasia of respiratory mucosa in Sendai can mimic hypovitaminosis ________.
Vitamin A
If you have recovered Sendai Virus antibody-positive stock, what can you do with them?
use as breeders to get virus-free pop. Pups will be antibody and virus free after maternal antibody decays.
What 2 lab species can serve as a source of infection with paramyxoviruses (Sendai, PVM) to rats?
mice and hamsters
Sendai can act as a co-pathogen with Mycoplasma or bacteria and can immunosuppress for prolonged periods in the rat. T/F
True
PVM is a pneumovirus of the ________ Family and shares many features in common with ________ virus.
Paramyxoviridae; Sendai
Does PVM cause clinical disease in rat or mouse in natural infection?
No
What other rodents seroconvert to PVM?
Hamsters, Gerbils, Guinea Pigs
PVM produces more pulmonary lesions in rat/mouse.
Rat
Best diagnostic test for PVM?
ELISA
What does HFRS stand for?
Hemorrhagic Fever w/Renal Syndrome
Synonyms for HFRS and type of virus?
Korean Hemorrhagic Fever; Muroid Virus Nephropathy caused by Bunyaviruses including Hantaan Virus
Is it zoonotic? How is it transmitted?
Yes; via infected lab rats or wild rats via aerosols from lung, saliva and issue of healthy rodent carriers
What is the standard test for detecting hantavirus? What biosafety level?
IFA with infected Vero cell antigen, BL3 - Production of recombinant hantavirus nucleocapsid protein (NP) expressed in silkworm larvae and its use as a diagnostic antigen in detecting antibodies in serum (WB) from infected rats. LAS 95 45(6):641
What is the genus and species of the silkworm?
Bombyx mori LAS 95 45(6):641