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429 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
actinic keratosis
often precedes squamous cell carcinoma
addison's dz
primary adrenocortical deficiency
albright's syndrome
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, cafe-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls
albuminocytologic dissociation
guillain-barre (increase protein in CSF with only modest incease in cell count)
alport's syndrome
hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
anti-basement membrane antibodies
goodpasture's syndrome
anticentromere antibodies
scleroderma (CREST)
anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (ANA antibodies
SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Anti-epithelial cell antibodies
pemphigus vulgaris
antigliadin antibodies
celiac dz
antihistone antibodies
drug-induced SLE
anti-IgG antibodies
rheumatoid arthritis
antimitochondrial antibodies
primary biliary cirrhosis
antineutrophil antibodies
vasculitis
antiplatelet antibodies
idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
arachnodactyly
marphans syndrome
argyll robertson pupil
neurosyphilis
arnold chiari malformation
cerebellar tonsillar herniation
aschoff bodies
rheumatic fever
atrophy of the mammillary bodies
wernicke's encephalopathy
auer rods
acute myelogenous leukemia (especially the promyelocytic type)
autosplenectomy
sickle cell anemia
babinski's sign
UMN lesion
Baker's cyst in popliteal fossa
rheumatoid arthritis
"bamboo spine" on x-ray
ankylosing spondylitis
Bartter's syndrome
Hyperreninemia
Basophilic stippling of RBCs
lead poisoning
Becker's muscular dystrophy
defective dysstrophin; less severe than Duchenne's
Bell's palsy
LMN CN VII palsy
Bence Jones proteins
multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chains in urine, Waldenstrom's macroglobinemia (IgM)
Berger's dz
IgA nephropathy
Bernard-Soulier dz
Defect in platelet adhesion (lack of glycoprotein Ib, platelets don't stick to vWF)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Sarcoidosis
Birbeck granules on EM
Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)
Bloody tap on LP
subarachnoid hemorrhage
"blue bloater"
chronic bronchitis
blue-domed cysts
fibrocystic change of the breast
blue sclera
osteogenesis imperfecta
boot shaped heart on x-ray
tetrology of fallot; RVH
Bouchard's nodes
osteoarthritis (PIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
boutonniere deformity
rheumatoid arthritis
Branching rods in oral infection
actinomyces israelii
"brown tumor" of bone
Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts:
1)hyperparathyroidism
2)osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen's dz)
Brushfield's spots
Down syndrome
Bruton's dz
X-linked agammaglobinemia
Budd-Chiari syndrome
posthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger's dz
small/medium aa vasculitis
Burkitt's lymphoma
8:14 translocation; associated with EBV
Burton's lines
lead poisoning
C-ANCA, P-ANCA
Wegener's granulomatous, polyarteritis nodosa
Cafe-au-lait spots on skin
neurofibromatosis
Caisson dz
gas emboli
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Call-Exner bodies
Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy
Chagas' dz
Cerebriform nuclei
mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Chagas' dz
trypanosome infection
Chancre
primary syphilis (not painful)
Chancroid
Haemophilus ducreyi (painful)
Charcot's triad
multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech), cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)
Charcot-Leyden crystals
Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
Chediak-Higashi dz
phagocyte deficiency
Cherry-red spot on macula
Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick dz, central retinal artery occlusion
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
Central apnea in CHF and increased intracranial pressure
"Chocolate cysts"
endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)
Chvostek's sign
hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina
DES exposure in utero
Clue cells
Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman's triangle on x-ray
osteosarcoma
Cold agglutinins
Mycoplasma pneumonia, infectious mononucleosis
Cold intolerance
hypothyroidism
Condylomata lata
secondary syphilis
Continuous machinery murmur
patent ductus arteriosus
Cori's dz
Debranching enzyme deficiency
Cotton wool spots
Chronic hypertension
Cough, conjunctivitis, coryza + fever
measles
Councilman bodies
toxic or viral hepatitis
Cowdry type A bodies
herpesvirus
Crescents in Bowman's capsule
rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Curling's ulcer
acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Currant-jelly sputum
Klebsiella
Curshmann's spirals
bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
Cushing's ulcer
acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
D-dimers
DIC
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra
Parkinson's dz (basal ganglia disorder-rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency)
Diabetes insipidus + exopthalmos + lesions of skull
Hand-Schuller-Christian dz
Dog or cat bite
pasteurella multocida
Donovan bodies
Granuloma inguinale
Dressler's syndrome
post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive)
Eburnation
osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance of bone)
Edwards' syndrome
Trisomy 18 associated with rocker bottom feet, low-set ears, heart dz
Eisenmenger's complex
late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L ->R shunt becomes R ->L shunt)
elastic skin
ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Erb-Duchenne palsy
superior trunk brachial plexus injury ("waiter's tip"
erythema chronicum migrans
Lyme dz
Fanconi's syndorme
proximal tubular reabsorption defect
"fat, female, forty, and fertile"
acute cholecystitis
fatty liver
alcoholism
Ferruginous bodies
Asbestosis
Gardner's syndrome
Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gaucher's dz
Glucocerebrosidase deficiency
Ghon focus
primary TB
Gilbert syndrome
Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Glanzamann's thrombasthenia
Defect in platelet aggregation, decrease in GP IIb/IIIa
Goodpasture's syndrome
autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins
Gowers' manuver
Duchenne's (use of pts arm to help legs pick self off the floor)
Guillain-Barre syndrome
idiopathic polyneuritis
"hair-on-end" appearance on x-ray
beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullary hematopoiesis)
Guillian-Barre syndrome
idiopathic polyneuritis
Hand-Schuller-Christian dz
chronic progressive histiocytoisis
HbF
thalassemia major
HbS
sickle cell anemia
hCG elevated
choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs w/ and w/out embryo)
Heberden's nodes
Osteoarthritis (DIP swelling secondary to osteophytes)
Heinz bodies
G6PD deficiency
Henoch-Schonlein purpura
hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with hemorrhagic urticaria and URIs
Heterophil antibodies
infectious mononucleosis (EBV)
high-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamine B1 deficiency)
HLA B27
Reiter's syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis
HLA-DR3 or DR4
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (caused by autoimmune destruction of beta cells)
Homer Wright rosettes
neuroblastoma
Honeycomb lung on x-ray
interstitial fibrosis
Horner's syndrome
ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis
Howell-Jolly bodies
Splenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen)
Huntington's dz
Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)
hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility
Kluver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)
hyperpigmentation of skin
primary adrenal insufficiency (addison's dz)
Hypersegemented nutrophils
macrocytic anemia
Hypertension + hypokalemia
conn's syndrome
Hypochromic microcytosis
iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning
Increased alpha-fetaprotein in amniotic fluid/maternal serum
anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)
increased uric acid levels
gout, lesch-nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferative disorder, loop and thiazide diuretics
Intussuption
adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyer's patches)
Janeway lesions
endocarditis
Jarish-Herxheimer reaction
Syphalis-overaggressive tx of an asymptomatic pt that causes symptoms due to rapid lysis
Job's syndrome
neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)
Kartagener's syndrome
Dynein defect
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Wilson's dz
Keratin pearls
Squamous cell carcinoma
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules
Diabetic nephropathy
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
Bilateral amygdala lesions
Koilocytes
HPV
Koplic spots
measles
Krukenberg tumor
Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Kussmaul hyperpnea
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility
Marhan's syndrome (fibrillin deficit)
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
HGPRT deficiency
Lewy bodies
parkinson's dz
Libman-Sacks dz
endocarditis associated with SLE
lines of zahn
arterial thrombus
Lisch nodules
neurofibromatosis (von recklinghausen's dz)
low serum cerulplasmin
wilson's dz
lucid interval
epidural hematoma
"lumpy-bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
lytic bone lesions on x-ray
multiple myeloma
mallory bodies
alcoholic liver dz
Mallory-Weiss syndrome
esophagogastric lacerations
McArdle's dz
muscle phosphorylase deficiency
McBurney's sign
Appendicitis
MLF syndrome (INO)
mucliple sclerosis
Monoclonal antibody spike
multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA), MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance), Waldenstrom's (M protein =IgM) macroglobulinemia
myxedema
hypothyroidism
necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis
Wegener's and Goodpasture's (hemoptysis and glomerular dz)
Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals
gout
negri bodies
rabies
nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss
alport's syndrome
neurofibrillary tangles
alzheimer's dz
Niemann-Pick dz
sphingomyelinase deficiency
no lactation postpartum
sheehan syndrome (pituitary infaction)
nutmeg liver
CHF
occupational exposure ot asbestos
malignant mesothelioma
"orphan annie" nuclei
papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
osler's nodes
endocarditis
owl's eye
CMV
painless jaundice
pancreatic cancer (head)
palpable purpura on legs and buttocks
henoch-schonlein purpura
pancoast tumor
bronchogenic apical tumor associated with Horner's syndrome
Pannus
Rheumatoid arthritis
Parkinson's dz
Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
Perosteal elevation on x-ray
pyogenic osteomylitis
Putz-Jeghers syndrome
benign polyposis
Peyronie's dz
Penile fibrosis
philadelphia chromosome (bcr-abl)
CML (may sometimes be associated with AML)
pick bodies
Pick's dz
"pink puffer"
emphysema (centroacinar[smoking], panacinar [alpha1antitrypsin deficiency])
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemia
podagra
gout (MP joint of hallux)
podocyte fusion
minimal change dz
Polynueropathy, cardiac pathology, and edema
dry beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)
polyneuropathy presceded by GI or respiratory infection
Guillain Barre syndrome
Pompe's dz
lysosomal glucosidase deficiency associated with cardiomegaly
Port-wine stain
hemangioma
positive anterior "drawer sign"
anterior cruciate ligament injury
Pott's dz
vertebral tuberculosis
pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement
glioblastoma multiforme
pseudorosettes
ewing's sarcoma
ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis
Horner's syndrome (Pancoast tumor)
rash on palms and soles
secondary syphilis, rocky moutain spotted fever
reynaud's syndrome
recurrent vasospasm in extremities
RBC casts in urine
Acute glomerulonephrits
Recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and S. aureus infections
cystic fibrosis
Red urine in the morning
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Stermnberg cells
Hodgkin's lymphoma
Reid index (increased)
chronic bronchitis
Reinke crystals
Leydig cell tumor
Reinke crystals
Leydic cell tumor
Reiter's syndrome
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis
Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemangiomas + adenomas
von hippel-lindau dz
renal epithelia casts in urine
acute toxic/viral nephrosis
rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent
pseudogout
roth's spots in retina
endocarditis
Rotor's syndrome
congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rouleaux formation (RBCs)
multiple myeloma
Russel bodies
multiple myeloma
S3
Left to right shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitral regurgitation, LV failure(CHF)
S4
aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Schiller-Duval bodies
Yolk sac tumor
Senile plaques
Alzheimer's dz
Sezary syndrome
cutenous T-cell lymphoma
Sheehan's syndrome
postpartum pituitary necrosis
Shwartzman reaction
Neisseria meningitidis
Signet-ring cells
gastric carcinoma
simian crease
down syndrome
sipple's syndrome
MEN type IIa
Sjogren's syndrome
dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
skip lesions
crohn's
slapped cheeks
erythema infectiosum (5th dz)
smith antigen
SLE
"smudge cell"
CLL
soap bubble on x-ray
giant cell tumor of bone
spike and dome on EM
membraous glomerulonephritis
spitz nevus
benign juvenile melanoma
splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
endocarditis
starry sky pattern
Burkitt's lymphoma
"strawberry tongue"
scarlet fever
steaky ovaries
turner's syndrome
string sign on x-ray
chron's dz
subepithelial humps on EM
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Suboccipital lymphadenopathy
Rubella
Sulfur granules
Actinomyces israelii
swollen gums, bruising,poor wound healing, anemia
Scurvy (ascorbic acid, vit C deficiency)=vit C is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen syntheis
systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
aortic valve stenosis
t(8;14)
burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22)
philadelphia chromosome, CML (brc-abl hybrid)
t(14;18)
follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation
tabes dorsalis
tertiary syphilis
tendon xanthomas (classically achilles)
familial hypercholesterolemia
thumb sign on lateral x-ray
epiglottitis (H-flu)
thyroidization of kidney
chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
tophi
gout
"tram-track" appearance on LM
membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Trousseau's sign
visceral cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
Virchow's node
left supraclavicular node enlargemnt form metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Virchow's triad
pulmonary embolism (triad=blood stasis, endothelial damage, hypercoagulation)
von Recklinghausen's dz
neurofibromatosis with cafe-au-lait spots
von Recklinghausen's dz of the bone
osteitis fibrosa cystica ("brown tumor")
Wallenberg's syndrome
PICA thrombosis
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
adrenal hemorrhage associated with meningococcemia
Waxy casts
chronic end stage renal dz
WBC casts in urine
acute pyelonephritis
WBC casts in urine
acute pyelonephritis
WBCs in urine
acute cystitis
Wermer's syndorme
MEN type I
Whipple's dz
Malabsorption syndrome caused by Tropheryma whippelii
Wilson's dz
Hepatolenticular degeneration
"Wire loop" appearance on LM
lupus nephropathy
"worst headache of my life"
berry aneurysm-associated with adult polycystic kidney dz
Xanthocromia (CSF)
subarachnoid hemorrhage
Xerostomia + arthritis + keratoconjuctivitis sicca
sjogren's syndrem
zenker's divrticulum
upper GI diverticulum
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Gastrin-secreting tumor associated with ucers
Most common bacteremia/pneumonia (IVDA)
S. aureus
Most common bacteria associated w/ cancer
H. pylori
Most common bacteria found in GI tract
bacteriodes (2nd most common is E. coli
Most common brain tumor (adults)
mets>astrocytoma (incuding glioblastoma multiforme)>meningioma>schwannoma
Most common brain tumor (kids)
medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Most common brain tumor - supratentoria (kids)
craniopharyngioma
Most common breast cancer
infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the US, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)
Most common breast mass
fibrocystic change (in posmenopausal women, carcinoma is the most common)
Most common breast tumor (benign)
fibroadenoma
Most common bug in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia pateint
klebsiella
Most common cardiac primary tumor (adults)
myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve"_
Most common cardiac primary tumor (kids)
rhabdomyoma
Most common cardiac tumor (adults)
mets
Most common cardiomyopathy
dilated cardiomyopathy
Most common chromosomal d/o
down syndrome (associated with ALL, alzheimer's dementia, and endocardial cushion defects)
Most common chronic arrhythmia
atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Most common congenital cardiac anomaly
VSD
Most common constrictive pericarditis
TB
Most common coronary artery involved inthrombosis
LAD>RCA>LCA
Most common cyanosis (early; less common)
tetrology of fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Most common cyanosis (late; more common
VSD, ASD, PDA (close with indomethacin; open with misoprostol)
Most common demyelinating dz
MS
Most common dietary deficit
iron
Most common cause of epiglottitis
H. influenzae type B
most common esophageal cancer
squamous cell carcinoma
Most common gene involved in CA
p53 tumor supressor gene
Most common gorup affected by cystic fibrosis
caucasions (fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies, mucous plugs/lung infections)
Most common gynecologic malignancy
endometrial carcinoma
Most common heart murmur
mitral valve prolapse
Most common heart valve in bacterial endocarditis
mitral
Most common heart valve in bacterial endocarditis in IVDA
tricuspid
Most common heat valve (rheumatic fever)
mitral valve (aortic is 2nd)
Most common helminith infection (US
enterobious vermicularis (ascaris lubricoides is 2nd most common)
Most common hereditary bleeding d/o
von Willebrand's
Most common kidney stoen
Ca+=radiopaque (nd most common is ammonium-radiopaque; formed by urease positive organisms such as proteus vulgaris or staphylococcus0
Most common liver dz
alcoholic liver dz
Most common location of brain tumors (adults)
supratentorial
Most common location of brain tumors (kids)
infratentorial
Most common lysosomal storage dz
gaucher's dz
most common male cancer
prostatic carcinoma
most common malignancy associated with noninfectious fever
Hodgkin's dz
most common malignant skin tumor
basal cell carcinoma (rearely metastasizes)
most common mets to bone
breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
most common mets to brain
lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
most common mets to liver
colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
most common motor neuron dz
ALS
most common neoplasm (kids)
ALL (2ne most common is cerebellar medulloblastoma)
most common nephrotic syndrome
membranous glomerulonephritis
most common obstruction of male urinary tract
BPH
most common opportunistic infection in AIDS
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
most common organ receiving mets
adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)
most common organ sending mets
lung>breast, stomach
most common ovarian tumor (benign)
serous cystadenoma
most common ovarian tumor (malignant)
serous cystadenocarcinoma
most common pancratic tumor
adenocarcinoma (head of pancreas)
most common pt with ALL/CLL/AML/CML
All-child
CLL-adult>60
AML-adult>60
CML-adult 35-50
most common pt w/ Hodgkin's
young male (except nodular sclerosis type-female)
most common pt with minimal change dz
young child
most common pt w/ Reiter's
male
most common pt with Hodgkin's
young male (except nodular sclerosis type-female)
most common pt with minimal change dz
young child
most common pt w/ Reiter's
male
most common pituitary tumor
prolactinoma (2nd-somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
most common preventable cancer
lung cancer
most common primary bone tumor (adults)
multiple myeloma
most common primary hyperparathyroidism
adenomas (followed by hyperplasia, then carcinoma)
most common primary liver tumor
hepatoma
most common renal tumor
renal cell carcinoma-associated withvon Hippel-Lindau and aquired polycystic kidney dz; paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
most common secondary hyperparathyroidism
hypocalcemia of chronic renal failure
most common sexually transmitted dz
clamydia
most common site of diverticula
sigmoid colon
most common site of metastasis
regional lymph nodes
2nd most common site of metastasis
liver
most common site of athrosclerosis
abdominal aorta >coronary>popliteal>carotid
most common skin cancer
basal cell carcinoma
most common stomach cancer
adenocarcinoma
most common testicular tumor
seminoma
most common thyroid cancer
papillary carcinoma
most common tracheoesophageal fistula
lower esophagus joins trachea/upper esophagus-blind pouch
most common tumor in men
prostate carcinoma
most common tumor in women
Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
most common tumor of infancy
hemangioma
most common tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)
pheochromocytoma (benign)
most common tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)
neuroblastoma (malignant)
most common type of Hodgkin's
Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
most common type of non-Hodgkin's
follicular, small cleaved
most common type of pituitary adenoma
prolactinoma
most common vasculitis
temporal arteritis (risk of ipsilaterla blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic artery)
most common viral encephalitis
HSV
most common vitamen deficiency (U.S)
folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3-4 mo supply)
most frequent cause of addisons
autoimmune (infection is the 2nd most common cause)
most frequent cause of aneurysm, dissecting
hypertension
most frequent cause of aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta
atherosclerosis
most frequent cause of aortic aneurysm, ascendign
tertiary syphilis
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (adults)
neisseria meningitidis
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (elderly)
streptococcus pneumonia
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (kids)
H. flu B
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (newborns)
E. coli
most frequent cause of cancer associatred with AIDS
Kaposi's sarcoma
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (adults)
neisseria meningitidis
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (elderly)
streptococcus pneumonia
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (kids)
H. flu B
most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis (newborns)
E. coli
most frequent cause of cancer associatred with AIDS
Kaposi's sarcoma
most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia
21-hydroxylase deficiency
most frequent cause of cretinism
iodine deficit/hpothyroidism
most frequent cause of cushing's syndroem
corticosteroid theapy (2nd most common cause is excess ACTH secretion by pituitary)
most frequent cause of death in CML
blast crisis
most frequent cause of death in SLE
lupus nephropathy
most frequent cause of dementia
alzheimer's (2nd most common is multi-infarct)
most frequent cause of DIC
gram negative sepsis, obstetric compliction, cancer, burn trauma
most frequent cause of ejection click
aortic/pulmonic stenosis
most frequent cause of food poisoning
S. Aureus
most frequent cause of glomerulonephritis (adults)
IgA nephropathy (berger's dz)
most frequent cause of hematoma-epidural
rupture of middle meningeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast)
most frequent cause of hematoma-subdureal
rupture of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)
most frequent cause of hemochromatosis
multiple blood transfusions (can result in CHF and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
most frequent cause of hepatic cirrhosis
EtOH
most frequent cause of hepatocellular carcinoma
cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B and C)
most frequent cause of holosstolic murmur
VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
most frequent cause of hypertension (secondary)
renal dz
most frequent cause of hypoparathyroidism
thyroidectomy
most frequent cause of hypopituitarism
adenoma
most frequent cause of infection in blood transfusion
hepatitis C
most frequent cause of infection in burn victems
pseudomonas
most frequent cause of leukemia (adults)
AML
most frequent cause of "machine-like" murmur
PDA
most frequent cause of mental retardation
down syndroem (fragile X is the second most common cause)
most frequent cause of MI
athrerosclerosis
most frequent cause of mitral valve stenosis
rheumatic heart dz
most frequent cause of myocarditis
cocksackie B
most frequent cause of nephrotic syndroem (adults)
membranous glomerulonephritis
most frequent cause of nephrotic syndroem (kids)
minimal change dz (assoc. w/ infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
most frequent cause of opening snap
mitral stenosis
most frequent cause of osteomylitis
S. aureus
most frequent cause of osteomyelitis in pts with sickle cell dz
Salmonella
most frequent cause of osteomyelitis with IVDA
pseudomonas
most frequent cause of pancreatits (acute)
EtOH and gallstones
most frequent cause of pancreatitis (chronic)
EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
most frequent cause of Peu d'orange
carcinoma of the breast
most frequent cause of PID
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
most frequent cause of pneumonia, hospital-aquired
Klebsiella
most frequent cause of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis, burn infection
pseudomonas aeruginosa
most frequent cause of preventable blindness
chlamydia
most frequent cause of primary amenorrhea
turner's (XO)
most frequent cause of primary hyperaldosteronism
adenoma of adreanal cortex
most frequent cause of hyperparathyroidism
adenoma
most frequent cause of pulmonary hypertension
COPD
most frequent cause of right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause
Cor pulmonale
most frequent cause of sheehan's syndrome
postpartum pituitary infarction secondary to hemorrhage
most frequent cause of SIADH
small cell carcinoma of the lung
most frequent cause of UTI
E. coli
most frequent cause of UTI (young women)
E. coli and staphylococcus saprophyticus