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25 Cards in this Set

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confounding
when many variables confuse the ability to determine the cause of a characteristic.
census
an attempt to include the entire population
bias
when a study favors an outcome
randomization
when chance is used to give subjects treatments to aviod bias
srs
when every unit has an equal chance to be examined
stratified random sample
when groups are made and then srs is used
systematic random sample
numbering off, choosing every other person
response variable
measures an outcome of a study
explanetory variable
explains the outcome
lurking variable
has an important effect on the outcome but isn't used in the study
experimental units
thing on which an experiement is performed
subjects
human experimental units
anecdotal evidence
based on haphazardly selected individual cases that are striking in some way
treatment
specific experiemental process applied to each case
control group
the group without treatment and no sham treatment
placebo
a dummy or sham treatment
block design
a bock is a group know to be similar before the experiment in some way that is expected to effect the response to the teatement. (strat random sample)
princeples of experimental design
control, randomization, replication
double blind experiement
when the subject nor the evaluator know which treatment the subject is recieving
statistical significance
a difference too large to be attributed to chance
cautions about experimentation
hidden bias, lack of realism
voluntary response samples
only those who choose to respond are evaluated
cautions about sample surveys
undercoverage, nonresponse, response bias, wording of question
descriptive statistics
methods of organizing, displaying, and describing data using tables, graphs etc.
inferential statistics
uses collected data to make generalizations about the entire group