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17 Cards in this Set

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Conservation
preschoolers dont understand, *the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects
preschoolers in which one state is changed into another bc they ignore intermediate steps
Centration
*the process of concentrating on one thing and ignoring all others, major characteristic of preoperational, and major limitation of period bc it leads to inaccuracy of thought
Until 3+ years, children have problems understanding the relationship bw pictures, maps or scale models and the objects they represent
-explained by the dual representation hypothesis, its hard bc it requires a child to mentally represent both the symbol and the thing it stands for at the same time (preoperational)*
Animism
Life and conscienceness to physical objects
Categorization
By age 4, children are able to classify according to criteria (ex. color and shape)
Artificialism
-Assuming that environmental events are human inventions, "Everything was made."
Preoperational thinking
-Stability and great change
Preschoolers ages 2-7; symbolized by symbolic thinking
-mental reasoning and use of concepts increases
**Symbolic Function
Class Inclusion

preoperational
-Not being able to keep 2 categories/classifications at the same time, for example, "the dogs and cats"-they say there are dogs instead of saying its an animal
Symbolic Function

preoperational
-the ability to use symbols or mental representations, numbers, or images to which a person has attached meaning
-Most evident in pretend play wherein children make an object stand for or symbolize somthing else
Symbolic Function
-Language allows preschoolers to represent actions symbolically permitting much greater speed
-Language can be used to consider several possibilities at the same time
-Addressing the question if thought determines language or if language determines thought; is directly related to language acquisition
Elizabeth Loftus
*did experiments on susceptibility to college students- Bugs Bunny at Disney world
Info Processing Approach
-cognitive development consists of gradual improvements in the way people perveive, understand, and remember info
-greater sophistication, longer attention spans
Autobiographical Memory
*memory of a particular event from ones life; not very accurate until after 3
-fade and susceptible to suggestion
By age 3 or 4, children haev words for comparing quantities ("bigger")
Preoperational thinking
By age 4, most are able to carry out simple addition and subtraction problems by counting
Information Processing Approaches
Preschoolers have difficulty describing certain information and oversimplify recollections
Information Processing
Egocentrism
*the inability to take others' perspectives; HALLMARK OF PREOPERATIONAL THINKING, 2 forms- lack of awareness that others see things from different physical perspectives and failure to realize that others hold thoughts, etc. different from ones own