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14 Cards in this Set

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Law of constant composition, law of definite properties
the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same (Proust)
Intensive vs Extensive Properties
Intensive do not depend on amount of sample, extensive do
Speed =
Distance (length)/ Time (meters/second)
Density =
Mass (g)/ Volume (mL)
Precision vs. Accuracy
How closely individual measurements agree with each other vs. how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or "true" value
John Dalton's Atomic Theory
Atoms are smallest particles of an element that retain chemical identity of the element
J.J. Thompson
Discovered electrons 1.76 x 10^8 coulombs/ gram using cathode rays
Robert Millikan
Discovered charge of electron (1.6x10^-19 C) and mass (9.10938 x 10^28 g)
Henri Becquerel
Radioactivity, spontaneous emission of radiation
Ernest Rutherford
Gold foil experiment
3 types of radiation
Alpha and beta - moving particles, bent by electric field
Beta - charge -1 (electrons)
Alpha - 2+, heavy
Gamma - no particles, no charge

most of mass and positive charge in small, dense "nucleus" - electrons move around nucleus in vast empty space
Thomas
"plum-pudding" model
12
C
6
12 => Mass number (number of protons and neutrons)
6 => Atomic number (number of protons or electrons)
Naming Acids
Anions whose names end in -ide
Are named by changing the -ide ending to -ic, adding the prefix hydro, and following it with the word acid
HCl- -> hydrochloric acid
H2S --> hydrosulfuric acid
Naming Acids
Anions whose names end in -ate or -ite
Change -ate to -ic and -ite to -ous
HClO4 --> perchloric acid
HClO2 --> chlorous acid