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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
latitude
lines that run parallel to the equator
longitude
geographic lines that run between the north and south poles
water budget
the total amount of water contained on Earth
sea level
the point at which the ocean surface touches the shoreline
precipitation
any form of water that falls to the earth, including rain, snow, sleet, and hail
water cycle
the continuous movement of water from the ocean to atmosphere and back to land
evaporation
the process by which liquid water changes to a gas or vapor
solvent
dissolves the solute - the substance in most abundance in a solution (eg. water is the solvent in Kool Aid)
solute
the substance which is dissolved in a solution (eg. Kool Aid powder)
solution
a mixture of two substances that can be separated by physical means (eg. Kool Aid drink)
calcium carbonate
the main component of seashells and of the limestone making up coral reefs
ion
any charged particle, either + or -
electrostatic force
the force that attracts or repels charged particles
properties of an acid
readily gives off H+ ions or readily accepts electrons
pH
a measure of acidity or basicity - it's calculated in the following way:

-log[H+]

([H+] is the concentration of H+ ions in solution)
properties of a base
readily gives off OH- ions, or accepts electrons
acid precipitation
acid rain, caused by the burning of fossil fuels (fossil fuel is a carbon-based fuel such as coal or oil)
buffer
helps maintain a stable pH - counters any addition of acid or base
photosynthesis
a series of reactions carried out by algae, converting carbon dioxide and sun light to carbohydrates and oxygen
O2 (oxygen gas) minimum zone
at 1000m depth - point where the least amount of oxygen is dissolved in ocean water