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54 Cards in this Set

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What are the major organizations responsible for?
They evaluate the relationship between radiation dose equivalent and induced biologic effects.
What types of risk estimates do they formulate?
Risk estimates of somatic and genetic effects after irradiation.
Define Stochastic.
1. The probability of the effect occurring depends on the dose of the radiation.

2. As the dose increases, the probability of the effect increases.

3. These effects are entirely random.

4. There is no threshold dose for stochastic effects.
Define Non-Stochastic.
1. Effects in which the severity of the effect increases as the radiation dose increases.

2. There is a threshold associated with nonstochastic effects.

3. Below this threshold the given effect will not be manifested.
Give examples of Stochastic effects.
Cancer or genetic effects
Give examples of Non-stochastic effects.
Cataracts, erythema, epilation.
deterministic effects.
Define 'Threshold Dose'.
Threshold definition: the point at which a response to an increasing stimulation first occurs. A dose below which an individual has a negligible chance of sustaining specific biologic damage.
Name the major international organisations.
ICRP: International Commission on Radiologic Protection

UNSCEAR: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

RERF: Radiation Effects Research Foundation

NAS/NRC-BEIR: National Academy of Science/National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

ICRU: International Commission on Radiologic Units and Measurements
What does the ICRP do?
Responsible for providing clear and consistent radiation protection guidance

Makes recommendations on occupational and public dose limits

Does not function as an enforcement agency
What does UNSCEAR do?
Formulates radiation protection guidelines

Evaluates human and environmental ionizing radiation exposures
What does RERF do?
Studies the survivors of the atomic bomb explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
What does NAS/NRC-BEIR do?
Studies the biologic effects of ionizing radiation and risk assessment

Studies groups of people who were either routinely or accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation

Early radiation workers, atomic bomb survivors, evacuees from the Chernobyl
What does the ICRU do?
Establishes radiation quantities and units, measurement procedures, and the use of data to ensure uniform reporting
What do ALL the international agencies do?
Make recommendations for EDE (effective dose equivalents) limits
Name the National Organizations.
USFDA: United States Food and Drug Administration

NCRP: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

CDRH: Center for Devices and Radiologic Health

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration

NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
What does the USFDA do?
The design and manufacture of x-ray equipment

Performance specifications of x-ray equipment
What does the NCRP do?
radiation protection issues.

to collect, analyze, develop, and disseminate information

Protection against radiation

Radiation measurements, quantities and units
What does the CDRH do?
Responsible for all medical devices including radiation producing equipment

Assumes regulatory control of the performance of x-ray equipment
What does the EPA do?
Development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment
What does OSHA do?
Monitoring agency in places of employment, predominantly in industry

Regulates occupational exposure

Responsible for regulations concerning the “right to know” of employees

Oversees regulations involving the need for training programs in the work place
What does the NRCdo?
Oversees the nuclear energy industry

Enforces radiation protection standards

Manufacture and use of radioactive substances used in research, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy

Does NOT regulate or inspect diagnostic x-ray imaging facilities
What are Agreement States?
States in the USA have entered into agreements with the NRC to assume the responsibility for enforcing

Hospitals comply with state regulations and are inspected by state officials
What are Non-Agreement States?
Both the state and the NRC enforce radiation protection regulations
Define the term 'SHALL'.
SHALL: adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary
Define the term 'SHOULD'.
Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made
What does the RSO do?
Radiation Safety Officer

Duties are to ensure that internationally accepted guidelines are followed by the institution
What is Public Law 90-602?
Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968

Passed to protect the public from the hazards of unnecessary radiation exposure from electronic equipment
Whose jurisdiction is Public Law 90-602 under?

What does it do?
The FDA

Conducts ongoing electronic product radiation control programs

Sets up standards for manufacture, installation, assembly and maintenance of machines used for radiography
What is the Consumer Health and Safety Act of 1981?
Provides establishment of minimal standards for the accreditation of educational programs

Requires that personnel be certified

Ensures standards are the same everywhere
What are the objectives of Radiation Protection?
To prevent clinically important radiation induced non-stochastic effects from occurring by adhering to absorbed dose limits that are beneath the threshold limits

To limit the risk of stochastic responses to a conservative level
What is the current Radiation Protection Philosophy?
Linear, Non-threshold, relationship between radiation dose and biologic effect
What does the term Risk imply?
The probability of injury, ailment or death resulting from an activity

The probability of inducing a radiogenic cancer or genetic defect after irradiation
What is NIRL?

What is its limit?
Negligible Individual Risk Level

A type of threshold level which is used for the lower limit of ALARA

1mrem
UNIT 4
DOSE LIMITS
What are the two main classifications of populations regarding radiation exposure?
Group 1: Occupationally exposed, or radiation workers

Group 2: The General Public
What is the EDE?

What does it use?
EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT

Equates the risk of cancer and genetic effects to the tissues and organs that are exposed to radiation

An organ weighting factor (Wt)
Why do we have dose limits?
The NCRP dose limits are set so that radiation workers have the same risk as everyone working in “Safe Industries”.
What is TEDE?
TOTAL EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT

Equal to annual effective dose limit of 50mSv or 5rem (year).
What is the lifetime TED?
Equal to cumulative effective dose limit

Can also be called the Cumulative Whole Body Effective Dose Equivalent

10mSv x age OR 1rem x age
What is not included in the EDE formulations?
Do not include exposure from natural background radiation

Or exposure acquired if the worker is having a medical imaging procedure or radiation therapy
Why is the embryo/fetus considered so sensitive?
The cells are constantly dividing and growing
What are the embryo/fetus EDEs and who else do they pertain to?
The monthly equivalent dose limit is 0.5mSv or 0.05rem

This dose limit refers to pregnant occupational workers as well
What does the term 'Declared' represent?
When an occupational worker becomes pregnant, she should notify her supervisor

The pregnancy then becomes Declared
What protection limits apply to the pregnant worker?
The monthly dose equivalent of 0.5mSv (embryo/fetus) is used for this person
What is the resposibility of the RSO toward the pregnant worker?
The RSO now needs to review the pregnant workers previous radiation exposure record to help decide what protection measures are necessary
How should a pregnant worker be protected?
Wrap around lead aprons are preferable for pregnant workers

Pregnant workers wear a second radiation monitor at their waste under their apron

The exposure of the second monitor is kept separate and is recorded as dose to the fetus
What are the guidelines for students in a Rad Tech program?
EDE should not exceed 1mSv (.1rem)annually

If the student is under the age of 18, they should receive no occupational exposure at all
What is the formula used to calculate EDE?
E = Radiation Weighting Factor (Wr) x Tissue weighting Factor (Wt) x absorbed dose
What is the 'fluoro conversion factor?
0.3
What is the Management's understanding of radiation protection?
The understanding is that the probability of getting any damaging effects from medical exposures is extremely slim
What should be included in their three step program?
1. New Employee Training
Familiarize them with radiation protection guidelines

2. In-Service Training.
Once or twice a year.
In-service training should be on radiation protection

3. Counseling During Pregnancy
People who declare their pregnancy should be counseled as soon as possible.
Should review guidelines, making sure the technician understands that guidelines and dose limits are different for the Fetus
What are the current thoughta on EDE coming from the ICRP and NCRP?
They are considering the possibility of reducing exposure standards due to the following:

1. recent re-evaluations of studies on Risk estimates done on atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

2. the appearance of increased numbers of solid tumors in the survivor population

3. ionizing radiation is now thought to be 3 times more damaging than previously thought

4. The recommendations from the ICRP and NRCP is that the annual EDE limit be reduced to 10 or 20mSv instead of the current 50mSv
What is Radiation Hormesis?

Who has studied itL
Low levels of radiation may be actually beneficial

BEIR and RERF
Give the different Tissue Weighting Factors.
Gonads .2

Active Bone Marrow .12
Colon .12
Lung .12
Stomach .12

Bladder .05
Breast .05
Esophagus .05
Liver .05
Thyroid .05

Bone Surface .01
Skin .01