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9 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the main structures that make up the urinary system.
• Two Kidneys
• Two Ureters
• One Bladder
• One Urethra
List the 4 main functions of the kidneys.
1. Helps to maintain homeostasis by regulating blood volume, and composition.
2.Forms urine, which is transported out of the body as a waste.
3. Helps regulate blood pressure.
4. Contributes to Metabolism.
Describe the size, shape, and location of the kidneys.
1.SIZE: 4 - 5” long, 2 – 3” wide
1.25” thick

2. SHAPE: Bean – shaped.
Waist or indentation is on the medial edge of the kidney.
Right and left kidneys are not always symmetrical or identical in size and shape.
The left kidney is usually longer and narrower.

Retroperitoneal - T12 to L3
State how the respiratory cycle and the erect position affect the location of the urinary collecting system.
Respiration will shift the height of the kidneys approximately 1”.

The erect body position will shift the kidneys approximately 2” lower
Describe the axis or orientation of the kidneys in the coronal, axial, and sagittal plane.
Coronal: The top edge is tilted inward and bottom edge is tilted outward.

Axial: long axis is at about a 30-degree angle to the midcoronal plane - lateral edge positioned most posteriorly - medial edge positioned most anteriorly

Sagittal: The top edge is tilted backwards and bottom edge forwards
List the 3 organs/structures that lie near the kidneys.
How do they relate to one or both of the kidneys.
LIVER - lies above the right kidney and its large size causes the right kidney
to lie lower than the left kidney.

SPLEEN – lies above the left kidney and is much smaller than the liver so the
left kidney is usually higher than the right kidney.

ADRENAL GLANDS – these small glands sit on top of the upper pole of each
kidney.
Define the term Hilum as it pertains to the kidney.
The opening into the renal sinus (a large open area in the center of the kidney).
List the structures that enter and exit the hilum of the kidney.
Entering - Renal Artery

Exiting - Renal Vein
Renal Pelvis
State the function of the ureters.
These tubular passageways move the urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder