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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many different cells types are there?
Over 200
How nany basic tissue types are there?

Name them
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. nervous
What is the study of tissues called?
How is epithelial tissue defined?
A layer of tightly joined cells that covers an ecternal or internal body surface.
What cell groups are also included in epithelial tissue?

What do they do?

They secrete different substances; hormones, enzymes sweat and saliva.
How are epithelia classified?
1.According to the number of cell layers in the sheet.

2. According to the shape of their outer cells.
Define the classifications of epithelia.
A single layer of cells. Delicate and found only in protected areas. Best at fluid exchanges.
Several layers. More robust. Found in areas of mechanical and chemical stress.
What are the basic shapes of surface epithelium cells?
Squamous. Thin and flat

Cuboidal. Square or cube-shaped.

Columnar. Rectangular on end.
What are the types of epithelia
1. Simple squamous.
For absorption, and slick to reduce friction.

2. Simple cuboidal.
Secretion and absorption.

3. Simple Columnar.
Some protection. In areas of absorption and secretion.

4. Pseudostratified columnar.
Nuclei at varying distances from surface. Looks layered.

5. Stratified squamous.
In areas of mechanical stress.

6. Transitional.
Where changes of volume occur. Stretchable. In the bladder.
What are the different gland types?

How do they differ?
Discharge through a duct to the outside of the epithelia.
Digestive enzymes. Perspiration.

Discharge directly into the surrounding tissue. Hormones
What are the basic elements of connective tissue?
Three common elements.

1. Some kind(s) of specialized cell.

2. Extra-cellular protein fibers produced by the cell.

3. A ground substance. (varies from fluid to solid)
What is a 'matrix'?
The combination of Extra-cellular protein fibers and ground substance surrounding the cell.
What are the different classifications of connective tissue?
1. Connective tissue proper.
Syrupy matrix.

2. Fluid Connective.
Fluid matrix.

3. Supporting Connective.
How many types of Connective tissue proper are there?
1. Loose connective (Areolar)
Packing. Fill spaces between organs.

2. Dense connective.
Strong, tough, durable.
Interconnect bone and muscle. Form capsules.
What are tendons and ligaments?
Dense connective.
Tendons attach muscle to bone.

Ligaments bind bone to bone.
What is a distinguishing property of fluid connective tissue?
It has its cells suspended in a watery ground substance.

eg. Plasma, Lymph, Interstitial
What are two examples of Supporting Connecive tissue?
1. Cartilage.

2. Bone
Where is cartilage found?
1. Nose and ears.

2. Between bones.

3. Covering bone ends.
What is 'Perichondrium'?
A layer of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds cartilage. Brings nutrients to the cartilage.
What is 'Osseous' tissue?

What is it composed of?

Hard calicum compounds and flexible collagen fibers.
What is a 'Body membrane'?
A combination of epithelial and connective tissue.
Name the body membranes.
1. Cutaneous
Covers the body surface.

2. Mucous
Cavities open to the exterior. Kept moist with secretions.

3. Serous
Line sealed internal cavities. Paietal and Visceral. Slippery.

4. Synovial
Loose connective. Separates bones
What are the different types of muscle tissue?
1. Skeletal

2. Cardiac

3. Smooth
What are the characteristics of skeletal muscle.
Long cells (muscle fibers)

Bound by loose connective tissue.

Can contract.

Attached to tendons to transmit force to bone.

Striated - in bands

What are the characteristics of cardiac muscle.
Found only in the heart.

Have smaller striations.

Single nucleus.

Interconnected (at Intercalated discs)

What are the characteristics of smooth muscle?
Small, slender

One nucleus


No striations


In walls of blood vessels and hollow organs
What are the basic cells in nervous tissue?
Two types

1. Neurons

2. Neuroglia
What are the parts of a neuron?
1. Cell body
Contains the nucleus

2. Dendrites
Collect inputs

3. Axon (nerve fiber)
Distributes output
What are the processes of tissue repair?
1. Inflammation
Damaged cells are isolated and removed.

2. Regeneration
Cells are replaced.
How does aging affect tissues?
1. A decrease in speed and effective of repair.

2. Thinner, more fragile