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67 Cards in this Set

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who is credited for the discovery of radioisotopes?
Marie Curie
Who is credited for the discovery of x rays?
WC Roentgen
Define radioactivity
the process by which atomic nuclei shift from a less stable to a more stable nuclear configuration, emitting ionizinfg radiation in the process
What is the primary difference between x rays and gamma rays?
Source: X rays from electron interactions. gamma rays from the atomic nucleus
What strikes the target in an x-ray tube to cause x-ray production?
electrons
What results in the diagnostic x-ray beam containing a wide range of energy levels?
Bremmstrahlung
From which components of the x-ray tube do x-rays originate?
anode

focal spot
What does increasing the kVp do to the x-ray beam?
It increases the number and energy of the x-ray beam
What is the primary advantage of keeping x-ray exposure time short?
Decreased motion
What is the purpose of using a grid in radigraphy?
Decrease scatter radiation which can cause fog and loss of detail
What is the purpose of using intensifying screens?
It allows the user to reduce the amount of radiation required to make a diagnostic image by converting x-rays to visible light which is better for exposing films
name 3 types of intensifying screens
phosphor

calcium tungstate

rare earth
silver halide is a form of what?
radiographic film
Define opacity interface
the visible line on a radiograph between two objects of different radiographic densities that are adjacent
What is ultrasound?
an imaging technique that uses unaudible, high frequency, low intensity sound waves.
Define radiation
energy moving through space or matter
define silhouette sign
lack of visualization of margins due to structures of the same opacity lying adjacent to one another
Name 3 radiographic abnormalties that may occur in pressure areas of the joint resulting from DJD
Thinning of joint space

subchondral bone erosion

subchondral bone sclerosis
define osteophyte
mineralization formed at the margin of the articular cartilage within thickened, vascularized cartilage that has developed as part of a degenerative process
define enthesophyte
mineralization at the attatchment of joint capsules, ligaments, tendonsand muscles, typically due to chronic abnormal tension or trauma.
define fog
film density that is unrelated to the subject
what is density?
darkness on a radiograph
define detail
refers to the sharpness of an image
What is distortion?
Deviation of the readiographic image from the true size and shape of the subject
What is contrast?
the difference between the shades of black, white and grays in a radiograph
What is opacity?
the property of a substance to absorb radiation
What is opacity interface?
difference in opacity between 2 adjacent structures
What is a penumbra?
The shadow caused by geometrical divergence of x-rays which causes gradual changes between shades of gray at the edges
With a given exposure how is high speed film different from low speed?
high speed has thicker silver halide layers and larger crystals resulting in more density but less detail/definition. Low speed is opposite
What is phosphor?
A phosphorescent material used in intensifying screens to convert x-rays to visible light in order to reduce the amount of radiation required to make a diagnostic radiograph
What is scatter?
radiographic density formed from extraneous radiation from the patient, other objects, etc
What is FFD?
the distance from the focal spot to the film
What is a grid?
a thin sheet or plate constructed of alternate strips of lead and radiolucent material interposed between the subject and the film. they prevent scatter radiation from reaching the film
When the focal film distance increases there is less intensity in the beam producing less exposure to the film. This can be calculated using what?
Inverse square law
What is OFD?
the distance from the object to the film
describe the anode of an x-ray tube.
The anode is the positive pole of the x-ray tube that attracts the electrons from the filament
What is the velocity of sound in soft tissues?
1540 m/sec
regarding ultrasound, what is acoustic shadowing?
an artifact that is commonly seen when the ultrasound beam encounters a mineral structure
What is the best view to use to see compartmentalization of the stomach in GDV?
right lateral
Pseudo ulcers in the dog are actual what?
outpouchiings of the doudenum
When can ossification of fetal structures be identified radiographically?
42 days
true or false

A splenic mass will cause a mid abdominal mass
true
Can a normal non gravid uterus be identified on a radiograph?
no
How long after surgery can free peritoneal gas remain?
2-3 weeks
What are 4 causes for generalized increased opacity in the abdomen
peritonitis

emaciation

immature-brown fat

ascites
give 2 differentials for a mass effect originating from the caudal ventral abdomen of a male dog
prostatic carcinoma

benign prostatic hyperplasia
Name 2 duodenal abnormalties that may be seen on an upper GI study that would make you consider paancreatitis
Doudenum displaced to the right of the abdomen

Less detail of the duodenum due to swelling and damage from pancreatic enzymes
What are 2 diseases that could result in retention of contrast medium in a discrete area of the prostate gland?
prostatitis

prostatic carcinoma
What are 4 reasons for the diaphragm to not be visible?
alveolar pattern in the caudal lung field

pleural effusion

mass in the caudal thorax

diaphragmatic hernia
Which radiopharmaceutical is used in a nuc scan of the muscluloskeletal system---up to phase three?
Tc-99m MDP
What radiopharmaceutical is used in a nuc scan of the lungs?
Tc-99m MAA
what radiopharmaceutical is used in a nuc scan of the kidneys?
Tc-99m DTPA
Which rays or particles come from the atomic nucleus?
gamma rays

beta

alpha
What is the HVL (half value layer)s
thickness of a substance that will stop half the x-rays or gamma rays in a beam
name 4 ultrasound artifacts
distant enhancement

acoustic shadowing

reverberation

slice thickness
Mineralization of the prostate is highly suggestive of what?
neoplasia
what is the equation for acoustic impedence?
velocity x tissue density
What is attenuation?
It occurs when sound waves lose strength as they travel through tissues
What is mAS?
milliamps per second. This controls the current flowing through the filament which either reduces or increases the number of electrons available in the electron cloud
What are the advantages of using a water soluble media for contrast studies?
safer if aspirated

safer if leaked into body cavities

more palatable
What are some advantages of using a barium suspension in contrast studies?
Easier to see on radiographs

binds well to damaged tissue

barium can be used for many different studies so availability is high
Given a whole body radiation exposure of 250 rads, what would serial cbc's demonstrate, from earliest to latest?
lymphopenia
neutropenia
thrombocytopenia
anemia
What is a rem?
unit of radiation exposure
what are 2 units of quantity of radioactivity
curie

becquerel
What is an electron volt?
unit of energy of ionizing radiation
X-rays, gamma rays, and visible light have 3 things in common. What are they?
Have velocity same as light

energy is related to wavelength

photons
X-rays, gamma rays, and visible light have 3 things in common. What are they?
Have velocity same as light

energy is related to wavelength

photons