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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the purpose of the kidneys?
To filter blood to maintain homeostasis
What study or studies will demonstrate kidney function?
Which study may be described as passing a catheter into the bladder via the urethra?
Cystography demonstrates anatomy, does it also demonstrate function?
What study may be described as passing a catheter into the urethra and then into the ureters?
Retrograde Pyelography
What is filled with contrast in retrograde pyelography?
Does retrograde pyelography demonstrate function?
What is a disease of the kidneys that involves multiple cysts, causes impaired renal function, and has no treatment? How is it radiographically demonstrated?
Polycystic Disease; IVP or Retrograde Pyelography shows enlarged collecting system
What is a congenital defect in which the lower poles of the kidneys are fused? Does it require treatment?
Horshoe Kidney; No
What is a congenital defect in which there is duplication of the collecting systems?
Bifid Collecting Systems
What is one of the most common congenital defects of the urinary tract?
Bifid Collecting Systems
What is the disease characterized by inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis with symptoms of fever, malaise, pain, and urgency? How is it treated?
Acute Pyelonephritis; Antibiotics
What is another term for kidney stones?
Renal Calculi
Renal calculi are more common in (men or women).
What are the symptoms of renal calculi?
Renal colic (intense pain), urinary tract obstruction, nausea, and vomiting
Where do renal calculi form?
Collecting system of kidney
What does obstruction of the urinary system by a stone cause?
How do you treat a kidney stone?
Nephrolithotomy (Surgery) or Lithotripsy
What is dilation of renal pelvis and calices with urine?
What is a disease caused by bacteria entering through the urethra and characterized by burning pain during urination? How is it treated?
Cystitis; Antibiotics
What is the term for bone destruction?
What is the term for bone forming?
For a osteolytic disease how must you adjust your technique?
Decrease your technique (mAs by half)
For a osteoblastic disease how must you adjust your technique?
Increase your technique (kVp by 15%)
When radiographing bones and joints what are the 2 cardinal rules?
1. 2 views 90 degrees from each other
2. With long bones include both joints
What is the most common congenital disorder of the lower extremity? Is it more common in males or females?
Club foot; males
When x-raying someone for club foot, how should the foot be x-rayed?
Weight bearing
What is the most frequent cause of dwarfism?
99% of achondroplasia cases are caused by _____ ______.
Spontaneous Mutation
What is characteristic of people with achondroplasia?
Short arms and legsd
What is a congenital disorder that may be described as brittle bone disease in which the person has fragile bones that fracture without trauma?
Osteogenesis imperfecta
What disease is the opposite of osteoporosis?
What congenital disease is characterized by growth plates not maturing, & brittle bones that have increased density? How does it appear radiographically?
Osteopetrosis, chalky white appearance radiographically
What metabolic disorder is characterized by a loss of density, porous, and brittle bones and in adults is caused by lack of estrogen?
What is a nutritional disorder in which there is a deficiency of vitamin D causing decreased bone density causing soft bones that bow and get greenstick fractures?
What is an inflammatory disease in which there is a spread of bacteria in the bones, patchy destruction of bones and is characterized by swelling of the ankles, knees, and elbows?
What is an inflammatory disease in which there is moderate to severe joint space narrowing? How does it appear radiographically?
Rheumatoid Arthritis; whitening in joint spaces radiographically
Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of what inflammatory disease?
Rheumatoid arthritis
Ankylosing spondylitis affects men in there ____ and is characterized by _____.
30's; bamboo spine
What is a degenerative disorder in which there is degeneration of the cartilage?
What is the most common form of arthritis?
What degenerative disorder is characterized by lytic destruction of bone and often occurs in the great toe?
Degenerative Gout
What is the hormonal disorder that causes giantism?
What is the hormonal disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland characterized by a large sella and mandible and exaggerated height?
What is a hormonal disorder caused by overactivity of one or more of the parathyroids causing diffused bone demineralization?
What is an idiopathic disorder of males 10-15 in which the tibial tuberosity separates from the tibial shaft?
What is an idiopathic disorder in which bones are deformed, they become hard and brittle, stress fractures are common, and commonly there are small linear fractures?
Paget's Disease
What is the term for lateral curvature of the spine?
What is a complication of scoliosis?
Rib cage deformity
What is the loss of bone in the vertebral column commonly in L4 and L5? How does it appear radiographically?
Spondylolysis; appears as a collar on Scottie dog
What is a vertebral column disorder in which there is an anterior movement of one vertebra on another, common at L5?
What type of vertebral column disorder is a Hangman's Fracture?
What type of fracture happens when the bone pierces the skin?
Open or compound
Describe a closed fracture.
The skin is not pierced
What type of fracture involves one side of the bone and extends incompletely through the bone?
What type of fracture is completely through the bone?
What type of fracture involves the epiphyseal plate?
What type of fracture is in two or more pieces?
What type of fracture occurs at sites of muscle origin? In what types of people is it common in?
Avulsion; gymnasts and baseball players
What is the term for realigning a fracture