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25 Cards in this Set

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This radiograph is an occipital mental view; its the most valuable for midface fractures
The Waters view
This radiograph is a submental vertex view and is the best for evaluating the zygomatic arches
The “jug-handle”
This radiograph is useful for mandibular rami and basilar skull fractures
The Townes view
This radiograph best details the upper facial bones
The posteroanterior (PA or Caldwell)
Describe a LeFort I Fx
Le Fort I is the horizontal fracture of the facial bones at the base of the maxillae above the apices of the teeth
This is a pyramidal fracture of the central maxilla across the bridge of the nose.
The nose, hard palate, and upper teeth move as a unit disjoined from the zygomas with stressing
The LeFort II Fx
This Fx involves the maxilla, nasal bones, ethmoid, and zygoma.
The entire face moves with stressing
The LeFort III (craniofacial disjunction)
what does a swollen epiglotis look like?
Like a thumb- this is a clinical emergency
What are the NEXUS C-Spine Rules (18-55 y/o)
1. midline pain or bony tenderness, crepitus, or step-off

2.neurologic deficit

3.presence of distracting injuries

4. ALOC including intoxication
What 3 views are required for cervical spine injuries?
AP view
lateral view
odontoid view
Name the crescent shaped hematoma lying between the brain and dura, conforming to brain surface
Subdural Hematoma
This injuy radiographically consists of small petechial hemorrhages in white matter tracts.

Causes immediate deep coma.

Often associated with severe cerebral edema and ICP elevation.
Diffuse Axonal Injury
The 2 stroke subtypes are Ischemic and Hemorrahgic, which one is more common
Ischemic (~75%)
Hemorrhagic (~25%)
what are the ischemic stroke subtypes
Thrombotic-blood clot forms in brain

Embolic-blood clot travels to the brain

Lacunar-vessel in brain narrows

Cryptogenic-cause unknown
Which is the most sensitive exam for brain tumors, strokes and certain chronic disorders of the nervous system such as multiple sclerosis
MRI
What action of the eye will be prevented as a result of an orbital floor blow-out fracture?
The patient cannot look up because the inferior rectus muscle is trapped in the fracture
What are the main things to assess for on the initial head CT?
location of hemorrhage
volume of hemorrhage
presence of intraventricular
hemorrhage
mass effect or midline shift
evidence of herniation
presence of hydrocephalus
How does the appearance of a SDH change over time?
In general, density by CT decreases with the age of the subdural.
what are the seven different bones that make up the orbit?
maxilla, zygoma, frontal, sphenoid, palatine, ethmoid, and lacrimal
what is the Gold standard in assessment for acute hemorrhage
Non-contrast head CT
this injury is indicative of high acceleration/deceleration injury with tearing of bridging veins or cortical arterioles
subdural hematoma
what do you do if suspicion for SAH is high, but CT neg?
do LP
Ring Enhancing Lesion are assoc. with what conditions?
Toxoplasmosis (in HIV+ patients)
Lymphoma
What is the most common brain blastoma in adults?
metastasis
what two structures does the tentorium separate?
the cerebrum and the cerebellum