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25 Cards in this Set

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what are the proper cranial and caudal margins for an abdominal radiograph?
diaphragm, coxofemoral joints
in a proper lateral abdominal radiograph, what three bony structures should be superimposed?
1. rib heads
2. transverse processes
3. ilial wings
how should a dog be restrained in lateral recumbency in order to obtain a proper abdominal radiograph?
pull the legs back so that they do not obscure the image
how is a VD abdominal radiograph properly aligned?
spinous processes centered over the vertebrae
what is the proper positioning of a dog for a VD abdominal radiograph in lateral recumbency? why is this position used?
- dog should be laying on the left side so that the fundus is out of the way. this view is to look for gas outside the organs
what is a common technique used to more easily visualize the structures of the caudal abdomen in a lateral radiograph?
- a compression band to minimize the thickness and displace bowel loops cranially. Also can use a wooden spoon
what are the four quadrants of an abdominal radiograph?
1. extra-abdominal structures
2. peritoneal and retroperitoneal space
3. GI system
4. urogenital system
what are the six types of abnormalities on an abdominal radiograph?
1. location
2. size
3. shape
4. margination
5. number
6. opacity
what are four components of the extra-abdominal structures that are viewed on an abdominal radiograph?
1. musculoskeletal structures (pelvis, spine, hindlimbs, surrounding soft tissues)
2. body condition
3. abdominal wall
4. caudal thorax
what are three patient factors influencing peritoneal/retroperitoneal detail?
1. age
2. body condition
3. presence of fluid
why would an abdominal radiograph of a young animal be more difficult to interpret than an older animal, assuming they have the same body condition?
young animals have more "brown fat", which contains more water; thus it silhouettes surrounding tissues. Older animals have normal fat, which provides good contrast
what are six abdominal (intraperitoneal) organs commonly assessed on an abdominal radiograph?
1. liver
2. stomach
3. intestines
4. pancreas (difficult)
5. spleen
6. lymph nodes
how is liver size assessed in an abdominal radiograph?
- should be parallel to ribs or perpendicular to the spine
- homogeneous soft tissue opacity
- sharp, pointed margins on a lateral view
- use position of the gastric axis (fundus to pylorus) to gauge size
what are the three basic regions of the stomach and what side of the body are they in?
1. fundus - left
2. body - left→center
3. pylorus - right
how would you position a dog/cat to view the pylorus?
in left lateral recumbency
what aspect(s) of the stomach are normally viewed in right lateral recumbency?
fundus and body
what are general rules-of-thumb to determine if small intesine is "normal" size in a lateral abdominal radiograph?
- < 2x height of lumbar vertebrae
- < 2-3x rib width in the dog
- < 12 mm diameter in the cat
in an abdominal radiograph, what are normal contents of
- the small intestine?
- large intestine?
- SI: fluid and gas
- LI: fecal material and gas
(tennis balls are not normal)
why is measuring the width of an intestine in an abdominal radiograph not always a reliable indicator of thickness?
because mucus and other things of the same radioopacity of the intestine will silhouette and make it look thicker
to what area of radiolucency is this arrow pointing?
cecum
what is a common contrast agent used to differentiate the colon from the small bowel?
air
to what is the arrow pointing?
spleen
Where is the spleen?
What is the radioopacity indicated by the arrow?
pancreas
which lymph nodes are potentially seen in an abdominal radiograph?
- mesenteric
- sublumbar