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191 Cards in this Set

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What is the term for having extra teeth?
hyperdontia (aka supernumerary teeth)
True or False, supernumerary teeth develop in addition to normal set of teeth
True
True or False, hyperdontia is not inherited because it is only caused by fetal damage
False, it can be inherited
90% of supernumerary teeth occur in the (maxilla/mandible)
maxilla
What's the most common type of supernumerary teeth?
Mesiodens (extra tooth in maxillary midline)
An extra tooth in the maxillary midline is called what?
mesiodens
What is the name for a supernumerary tooth that erupts DISTAL to the 3rd molar?
distomolar or distodens
A distomolar erupts (mesial/distal) to the 3rd molar
distal
What is the name for a supernumerary tooth that is seen in the molar area, buccal OR lingual to a normal tooth?
paramolar
A patient comes in with a tooth that appears to be a 4th molar. What can you assume this is?
A distomolar or distodens
Mesiodens are usually (small/large) and have (long/short) roots. Overall, their shape can be described as ___.
small, short. conical.
You see a radiograph with a diastima between tooth # 8 and 9 with a small conical tooth in between forcing them apart. What would this small tooth be called?
Mesiodens
True or False, supernumerary teeth can prevent the eruption of normal permanent teeth
True
Supernumerary teeth, when occurring in the MANDIBULAR region, tend to occur where?
premolar-molar region
True or False, supernumerary teeth actually do not cause crowding
False, they do (or at least, they can)
True or False, with supernumerary teeth, you should detect them early and remove them
True
What are three syndromes associated with supernumerary teeth?
Gardner, Apert, Down
If you suspect someone may have Gardner syndrome, what should you do and why?
Have them see a doctor because intestinal polyps are common with this syndrome and can lead to cancer
Match the following:

Hypodontia
Oligotontia
Adontia

1. absence of ALL teeth
2. 1 or a few missing teeth
3. several missing teeth
Hypodontia : one or a few missing teeth
Oligodontia: several missing teeth
Anodontia: absence of all teeth
What syndrome is associated with multiple missing teeth, and is a problem with ectodermally derived structures like hair, nails, and sweat glands?
Entodermal dysplasia
In ectodermal displasia, what are the teeth shaped like?
conical
True or False, an ankylosed tooth is fused to bone
True
If a tooth still had its PDL and lamina dura intact on a radiograph, then it (is/is not) ankylosed
is NOT (must be fused to bone, meaning PDL and LD would not be visible)
Primary teeth:

Have more (convergent/divergent) roots
Have (larger/smaller) crowns
divergent, smaller
Rank the order of the following teeth from most commonly missing, to least commonly missing (note: all referring to perm. teeth)

Max lateral incisors
Mand 3rd molar
Max 3rd molar
Mand 2nd premolar
Max 3rd molar
Mand 3rd molar
Mand 2nd molar
max permanent lateral incisor

(Hint: 3, 2, 1. 3rd molar, 2nd premolar, 1st [and only] lateral incisor)
True or False, there is a high correlation between primary tooth absence and permanent tooth absence
True
A larger than normal tooth is called ___
macrodontia
a smaller than normal tooth is called ____
microdontia
A macrodont may resemble what two other tooth deformation?
fusion, gemination
What two basic things can a macrodont cause or accelerate?
crowding, and perio disease
Supernumerary teeth are more often (micro/macro)dont
micro
Microdontia usually effects what two teeth?
permenant lateral incisors

Max 3rd molars
True or False, microdonts are never malformed, only small versions of a normal tooth
False, they are smaller and either normal OR malformed
What is the common name for a microdont maxillary lateral incisor?
Peg lateral (I still think this should have been a waxing project last semester)
Microdontia is usually (bi/uni)lateral
bi
What is a good method to save and alter a microdont so that it works more effectively in the mouth?
Put a crown on it
Other than lateral incisors, what teeth are the next most common to be microdonts
3rd molars
What tooth has the most variable crown shape?
Max 3rd molars
When two teeth switch position in the arch, we call this
Transposition or translocation
True or False, crowding is very common with transposition
False! Teeth don't crowd, they just switch spots
Which is more common with translocation; crowding or occlusion issues?
occlusion issues
What's the difference between tipping and drifting?
Tipping is when the tooth stays in the same place but 'falls' to one side.

In drifting, the tooth actually migrates
A patient comes in with a tooth surrounded by two empty spaces where teeth have been extracted. What two problems might the patient experience with that tooth?
tipping or drifting
What is an ectopic eruption?
Tooth comes in in the wrong place. Ex: mand. incisors coming in behind the primary teeth
Which is more likely to cause crowding; ectopic eruption or transposition
ectopic eruption
True or False, an ectopic eruption can cause disruption of the arch curvature
True
When teeth are out of alignment and a tooth has no opposition in the opposing arch, what can happen?
Supraeruption
(impacted/embedded) teeth are physically stopped from erupting, whereas (impacted/embedded) teeth simply fail to erupt
impacted, embedded
True or False, embedded teeth can also be ankylosed
True
Embedded teeth happen more frequently in the (maxilla/mandible) in the (distal/mesial) direction
mandible, mesial
What is the term for the abnormal movement of an unerupted tooth?
migration
What happens to 'migrated' teeth?
They stay embedded
The union of two tooth buds can lead to ___
fusion
If two normal teeth are fused, you end up with an overall (lower/higher) # of teeth
lower, because 2 teeth became 1 by fusion
Fusion is more common in (primary/permanent) dentition
primary
In permanent teeth, fusion is most common between what two teeth?
central and lateral incisors
True or false, teeth that have undergone fusion also share a pulp chamber
False! They bring in their own pulp chamber, canals, and roots
What's the proper name for fusion (in regards to teeth)?
Synodontism
What's the difference between fusion and gemination?
fusion is when two teeth come together

gemination is when 1 tooth tries to split apart
When a single tooth bud tries to split apart, it's called ___
gemination
Gemination is also known as ____
schizodontism
In gemination, what happens to the overall # of teeth?
stays the same
Gemination is most common in (anterior/posterior) teeth
anterior
Geminated teeth appear (smaller/larger) than normal
larger
A patient comes in and despite being afraid that he will die from radiation exposure when given an X-ray, you manage to talk some sense into him and take a radiograph of a funny looking tooth. The tooth has an enlarged pulp chamber that is 'Y'-shaped with 2 coronal portions, and has 1 root. What is wrong with the paranoid guy's tooth?
gemination
Gemination happens more frequently in (primary/secondary) teeth
primary
True or False, gemination ONLY occurs in primary teeth
False, occurs in both primary and permanent
Gemination is most common in:

A. 3rd molars
B. Incisors
C. Pre-molars
D. Mandibular molars
E. Canines
B. Incisors
Concresence is due to ___
hypercementosis
The union between the roots of 2 or more adjacent teeth by cementum is called what?
Concresence
Concresent teeth are (harder/easer) to extract than normal teeth
harder
What is the etiology of concresence?
unknown
When a tooth has an abnormally large pulp chamber, we call this ___
taurodontism
In taurondontism, what happens to the crown?
Nothing, it's normal. It just had a larger pulp chamber
Taurodontism can occur in (primary/permanent) teeth
Both!
A patient comes in with a painful tooth and you think a root canal is your best option. After taking a radiograph, you notice that might be difficult, due to an enlarged pulp chamber. What is this known as?
Taurodontism
Taurodontism is most common in which teeth?
molars
Teeth with taurodontism have (more/less) constriction at the DEJ
less (little or none at all)
You extract a tooth from a patient's mouth without doing a radiograph and notice the root is sharply bent and curved. What is this called?
dilaceration
What is the etiology of dilaceration?
disturbance in tooth development or trauma
Dilacerations are common in two groups of teeth. What are they?
max premolars

incisors
In dens (in/e)vaginatus, you have an infolding of the outer surface of enamel into the interior of the tooth before calcification
invagination
What's another name for dens invaginatus?
dens in dente
A patient comes in and you notice a RO 'tear drop' outline on their tooth where the pulp would typically start. This is probably what?
Dens invaginatus
Dens in dente produces (shallow/deep) lingual pits
deep
Which is MORE susceptible to caries? Normal tooth, or tooth with dens invaginatus?
dens invaginatus
Dens invaginatus (aka dens in dente) is most common in which teeth?
max lateral incisors
What can be used to treat dens invaginatus?
fill with restoration
Dens evaginatus is an (in/out) folding of enamel
out
Why should you place a sealant in a tooth with dens evaginatus?
The fissures are suseptible to caries
Dens evaginatus is common in what teeth?
mand. premolars
Turner's hypoplasia is a type of what condition?
enamel hypoplasia
Incomplete or defective enamel formation is known as ___ ___
enamel hypoplasia
In enamel hypoplasia:

Normal tooth shape (is/is not) altered

Is most common in what type of tooth?
is altered

premolars
What is a form of enamel hypoplasia based on heredity?
amelogenesis imperfecta
When ameloblasts fail to form enamel correctly, this is called
amelogenesis imperfecta, a type of enamel hypoplasia
Which type (1, 2 or 3) of amelogenesis imperfecta has normal but thin enamel
1
Which type (1, 2 or 3) of amelogenesis imperfecta has soft and mushy enamel
2
Which type (1, 2 or 3) of amelogenesis imperfecta has normal enamel, but it's poorly mineralized, tends to break, and looks 'snow-capped' on radiographs?
3
What type of restoration is best for amelogenesis imperfecta?
fixed prosthetics
You look at a patient's radiograph and notice square shaped crowns, poor proximal contacts, but a normal pulp chamber. What is wrong with this patient's teeth?
amelogenesis imperfecta
True or False, both amelogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfecta are hereditary
True
Failure of the odontoBLASTS to form dentin and DEJ correctly is called ___ ___
dentionogenesis imperfecta
True or False, in dentinogenesis imperfecta, the integrity of the enamel is still the same
False, the underlying dentin is weak so the enamel is more likely to fracture
Teeth will appear what color in dentinoenesis imperfecta?
yellow to blue-gray
Which type (1 or 2) of dentinogenesis imperfecta is MOST common?
2
What treatment should be used to correct dentinogenesis imperfecta?
fixed prosthetics
Which type (1 or 2) of dentinogenesis imperfecta is associated with osteogenesis imperfecta?
1
Which type (1 or 2) of dentinogenesis imperfecta is when only the dentin isn't properly mineralized?
2
A patient comes in and has a radiograph taken. You notice one tooth has bulbous crowns, short tapered roots, the tooth is constricted in the cervical region, and the pulp canals show progressive obliteration. What is wrong with this tooth?
dentinogenesis imperfecta
Dentin dysplasia is a (hereditary/trauma induced) disorder
hereditary
True or False, Dentin dysplasia only effects permanent teeth
False, both perm and primary teeth
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia has short abnormal roots?
1
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia has obliteration of pulp chambers before eruption?
1
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia has normal morphology?
1
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia has normal enamel and dentin at DEJ, but dysplastic throughout the rest of the tooth?
1
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia may present with periapical radiolucencies even though they are non-carious?
1
What is the recommended treatment for dentin dysplasia type 1, although it is difficult to do?
root canal
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia displays changes in the pulp chambers and canals after eruption?
2
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia commonly has pulp stones?
2
What is the proper name for 'ghost teeth'?
regional odontodysplasia
Which type (1 or 2) of dentin dysplasia has flame or thistle shaped pulp chambers in single rooted teeth?
2
A tooth has a globule of enamel that is not normal. What would we call this?
enamel pearl
True or False, enamel pearls may have their own dentin and pulp horn
True
Why can you not just pluck off an enamel pearl?
it could have it's own pulp; isn't always JUST a ball of enamel
Where are enamel pearls most commonly found?
furcation areas of molars
You look at a patient's radiograph and it appears that they have an enamel pearl on tooth #3. What other two things should you write down as possibilities?
calculus; pulp stones
Enamel pearls are typically in the (cervical/apical) portion of the tooth
cervical
Tooth resorption is the removal of tooth structure by odonto(blasts/clasts)
odontoclasts
True or False, roots will only resorb internally
False, internally OR externally
If the apex of a root looks excessively blunted, what might you assume is happening?
external resorption of the root
What happens to the PDL and lamina dura with external root resorption if there is NO periapical pathology?
they remain intact
What are the main causes of internal root resorption?
trauma

pulpotomy
What are two treatments for internal resorption?
RCT

extraction
If a patient has ruptured blood vessels on the pulp, they are at risk for ___ ___
internal resorption
A patient comes in and you notice one of their teeth is pink. What is likely wrong with this tooth?
internal resorption
True or False, pulp stones are 'invisible' on radiographs
False, they are RO
What is the etiology of pulp stones?
unknown
What is the etiology of regional odontoplasia?
unknown
If you look at a radiograph and see ghost-like teeth with large pulp chambers and canals with thin hypoplastic enamel and dentin, you might assume the patient has ___ ___
regional odontodysplasia
Talon cusps are commonly found where?
permanent max. central incisors
True or False, all talon cusps contain pulp horns
False, some do, some don't
The talon cusp is an exaggeration of what normal structure of the tooth?
cingulum
What is the term for physiological wearing away of tooth structure from tooth to tooth contact?
attrition
A patient comes in with flat occlusal planes and exposed dentin on all their anterior teeth. What do we call this?
attrition
Why are restorations difficult on patients with attrition?
You've lost the vertical dimension for support
With attrition, the PDL spaces tend to get (narrower/wider)
wider
What is the pathological wearing of tooth structure via an abnormal mechanical process?
abrasion
A person brushes their teeth very hard and they have noticeable wear on their teeth because of it. Is this attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
abrasion
What class of caries most commonly follows abrasion?
class 5 (because patient is probably brushing or flossing too hard around cervical area of tooth)
A patient comes in and tells you they floss 3 times a day for 5 minutes. You notice cervical burnout on the x-ray of these teeth. Is this attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
abrasion
A patient comes in complaining of tooth sensitivity of most of her teeth, and you notice they are flattened off and the dentin is exposed in many of them. Is this attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
attrition
True or False, abrasion is easily distinguishable form caries radiographically
False, they are often confused
A patient comes in with some teeth that appear to have a loss of tooth structure, but you deem it is non-pathological and not caused by excessive brushing or flossing. The patient tells you that they drink OJ at every meal. What do you suspect caused the loss of tooth structure?
erosion
A bulimic patient has the lingual of his (guys watch their figure too) maxillary anterior teeth exposed. Is this attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
erosion
How are abrasion and erosion different?
Abrasion is physical wear

Erosion is chemical wear
Are these teeth in orange impacted normal teeth or extra teeth? What is this called?
extra; hyperdontia
What is the name for these type of extra teeth?
mesiodens
Here, several teeth are missing. What is this known as?
oligodontia
1 tooth is missing under T. What is this problem known as?
hypodontia
What is it called when a tooth looks like the one indicated by the red arrow?
macrodontia (look how much bigger it is that the tooth to its right)
This tooth indicated by the purple arrow could be classified in what way based on its size?
microdontia
Is yellow a macro or microdont

What is indicated by the purple arrow?

blue arrow?

Over or underangulated image?
microdont

purple - malar
blue - max sinus
overangulated
What do we call this? (notice where the teeth indicated by the black arrows are located)
transposition/translocation
These teeth erupted in the wrong spot. We call this ___ eruption
ectopic eruption
Because the teeth in yellow have no opposing contact, they will undergo ___
supraeruption
Is the tooth indicated by the green arrow embedded or impacted?
embedded
Because the purple arrowed tooth is ___, the green arrowed tooth wil undergo ____
impacted, supraeruption
Is this tooth ankylosed?
Yes! (No PDL!)
This is an image of (fusion/gemination)
fusion
This is an image of (fusion/gemination)
fusion
This is an image of (fusion/gemination)
gemination
This condition called ___ is due to a process known as ___
concrescence, hypercementosis
What do we call it when the pulp chamber appears the way it does in the orange circle here?
Taurodontism
The morphology of the roots here is known as what?
dilaceration
This is known as dens ___
invaginatus (or Dens in dente)
There is a deficit here in the orange circles. This is known as what?
enamel hypoplasia
This type of enamel hypoplasia is called what?
amelogenesis imperfecta
The bulbous crowns here are indicative of what?
dentinogenesis imperfecta
These short teeth indicate type __ of what problem?
type 1 dentin dysplasia
The odd pulp indicated type __ of what problem?
type 2 dentin dysplasia
This is known as "ghost teeth" or __ __
regional odontodysplasia
What is this small RO structure?
enamel pearl
What happened to this tooth?
root resorption
What is this known as in the yellow box?
pulp stone
What is this RO object called?
talon cusp
Attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
Attrition
Attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
abrasion
Attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
abrasion
Attrition, abrasion, or erosion?
erosion
What are these little 'peaks' of enamel known as? (hint: not a disease process)
mamelons